Callicarpa japonica (Lamiaceae) is a morphologically variable shrub widely distributed throughout Japan. In this study, we investigated the intraspecific genetic structure and geographical distribution pattern of the morphological variations. A border of genetic variation in the chloroplast DNA and nuclear rDNA ITS regions between eastern and western Japanese populations was recognized in the Kinki area. Leaf size and thickness varied continuously and the observed pattern of morphological variation was not coincident with genetic differentiation. Moreover, plants with large and/or thick leaves were found in both the eastern and western populations, indicating that they were not monophyletic.
Three new species of Annonaceae; Cyathocalyx tsukayae, Mitrephora imbricatarum-apicum and Orophea sagittalis, are described based on materials newly collected from Betung-Kerihun National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Based on plants from Doi Phukha, Nan Province, Thailand, we provide the first description of Chlorophytum longissimum var. phukhaense, var. nov. (Asparagaceae). This variety differs from C. longissimum var. longissimum in having a long vertical rhizome and an inflorescence that elongates before anthesis.
The morphology of the plumular leaf was investigated for the 36 taxa (31 species and 5 subspecies) of Arisaema (Araceae) in Japan. Of the total, 22 taxa (18 species and 4 subspecies) were newly observed. Four morphological plumule patterns, i.e. without blade, with a simple and cordate blade, with a simple and hastate blade, and with a trifoliolate blade, were recognized. The patterns are considered in relation to the taxonomic treatment of Japanese Arisaema.
Cytological studies on four myco-heterotrophic species of Burmannia (Burmanniaceae) in Japan were carried out. The finding of a chromosome number of 2n=176=88II (88 bivalents) in B. championii differed significantly from previous reports of 2n=12, 64-72. Chromosome numbers of 2n=120 for B. cryptopetala, 2n=60 for B. itoana and 2n=24 for B. nepalensis are reported here for the first time. Wide variation in chromosome number, chromosome length and karyotype at resting stage and metaphase was observed among the four Japanese species of Burmannia.
The breeding system and seed production of a distylous perennial, Ophiorrhiza japonica, were analyzed on Iriomote Island, located near the southwestern end of the Ryukyu Islands. On Iriomote, O. japonica is monomorphic with a pin morph. Artificial pollination experiments confirmed self- and intramorph compatibility in the populations, but automatic self-pollination was not detected. Seed set in 12 sampling plots in two natural populations was constant and abundant, indicating high pollinator availability. Our results indicate that self compatibility can be assumed to have been important in the establishment of the monomorphic populations on Iriomote Island. The loss of distyly is not characterized by specialization in self-fertilization, but rather intramorph compatibility can be assumed to have been more important in maintenance of the pin-monomorphic population as a factor facilitating outbreeding
Due to the lack of chlorophyll, fully mycoheterotrophic plants display wide variation in pigmentation in their vegetative as well as in their floral parts. Here, we describe a creamy yellow form of Yoania japonica Maxim. discovered in Tateshina city, Kita-Saku-gun, Nagano Prefecture. This is another example of a mycoheterotrophic orchid that exhibits a distinct color difference from the typical form. While in the genus Yoania, creamy yellow coloration has been reported only in Y. flava, our materials are distinguishable from Y. flava by the morphology of the lip and petal margins (erose- serrate vs. almost entire). The ecological significance of this creamy yellow form of Y. japonica in the vicinity of the boundary between the distribution of Y. japonica and Y. flava is also discussed.
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