Phyllonoma, the only genus of Phyllonomaceae (Aquifoliales), consists of four Central American species that have characteristic epiphyllous inflorescences. It has been long uncertain whether the inflorescences are cymose or racemose. The latest literature reports suggest that three species, P. laticuspis, P. tenuidens and P. weberbaueri (with small reduced inflorescences), have racemes, while P. ruscifolia (with large inflorescences) has irregular monochasial cymes. Anatomical observations of the inflorescence of P. tenuidens using serial transverse microtome sections show that it is not a raceme but a monochasial inflorescence, more strictly a scorpioid cyme. Results of the present study, together with earlier observations in other species, suggest that the entire genus Phyllonoma has monochasial cymes. Recaulescence by means of the adnation of a subtending bract (prophyll) to a higher order axis for some distance, resulting in the metatopic displacement of an axillary bud, is prevalent in the epiphyllous inflorescence.
We recognize a new peloric form of the orchid Cephalanthera falcata (Thunb.) Blume f. conformis Hiros. Hayak. et J. Yokoy., which occurs in the vicinity of the Tsukuba mountain range in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. This peloric form is sympatric with C. falcata f. falcata. The peloric flowers have a petal-like lip. The flowers are radially symmetrical and the perianth parts spread weakly compared to normal flowers. The stigmas are positioned at the column apex, thus neighboring stigmas and the lower parts of the pollinia are conglutinated. We observed similar vegetative traits among C. falcata f. falcata, C. falcata f. albescens S. Kobayashi, and C. falcata f. conformis. The floral morphology in C. falcata f. conformis resembles that of C. nanchuanica (S.C. Chen) X.H. Jin et X.G. Xiang (i.e., similar petal-like lip and stigma position at the column apex; syn. Tangtsinia nanchuanica S.C. Chen), but C. falcata f. conformis and C. nanchuanica can be distinguished by their staminodes (5 inconspicuous staminodes in the former, and 3 large and 2 inconspicuous staminodes in the latter). Nucleotide sequences of nrDNA ITS and cpDNA trnL-F intergenic spacer regions of C. falcata f. conformis were different from those of C. nanchuanica. The two peloric taxa likely have independent origins, although both are derived from C. falcata.
Thismia hexagona Dancak, Hronea, Koblova et Sochor was recently reported from Brunei Darussalam. It is characterized by its unique yellow and brown coloration and sharply hexagonal flower annulus. Here, we also report its discovery during a botanical expedition in the Maliau Basin Conservation Area, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia. The Malaysian individuals differ from the original description of T. hexagona in the opening angle and size of the perianth lobes. We therefore propose it as a new variety, T. hexagona var. grandiflora Tsukaya, M. Suleiman & H. Okada var. nov. Detailed morphological characters are provided.
The taxonomic status of Schizocodon ilicifolius var. minimus (Diapensiaceae) on Yakushima has been debated over the last century. The phylogenetic relationships of Schizocodon were recently resolved using molecular markers; the analysis suggested that Sc. ilicifolius var. minimus should be reassigned to Sc. soldanelloides. We examined specimens of Sc. ilicifolius var. minimus from Yakushima and concluded that they were morphologically identical to Sc. soldanelloides. We therefore accept the combination Schizocodon soldanelloides var. minimus (Makino) H.Hara for this Yakushima endemic.
The type specimens of Chiloscyphus mororanus Steph. and C. submersus Warnst., were examined and both species are synonymized under C. polyanthos (L.) Corda. Illustrations and brief descriptions as well as taxonomic discussions for each species are provided.
Based on plants from Gaoligong Shan, Yunnan, China, we provide the first description of Polygonatum dolichocarpum, sp. nov. (Asparagaceae). In all previously described species of Polygonatum the young fruits are more or less globose and contain fewer than 9 ovules/seeds per locule and the pericladium is short or absent. Polygonatum dolichocarpum has elongate young fruits with 9 to 12 ovules/seeds per locule and long pericladia.
The taxonomic treatment of Arisaema (Araceae) in China in volume 23 of the Flora of China (FOC) in 2010 recognized 78 species in 12 sections. The circumscription of the sections was revised by Murata in 2011 and the names of the sections were reviewed more recently by Murata et al. in 2013. In the FOC the circumscription of some species was changed drastically and four new species were described. Notes on the treatment in the FOC are given, based on recent cytological and molecular data, according to the sections recognized by Murata et al. in 2013.