Despite previous phylogenetic studies, the relationships among sections, subsections and species of Lonicera (Caprifoliaceae), especially in Japan, remain unclear. In this context, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among 23 Japanese species belonging to all four sections and five subsections of Lonicera based on sequences of five chloroplast non-coding regions, rpoB-trnC, atpB-rbcL, trnS-trnG, petN-psbM, psbM-trnD. The trees obtained from were fundamentally identical with those reported previously, but provide some new insights on the Japanese species. 1) All Japanese species of Lonicera concerned here are assignable to one clade, corresponding to subgenus Lonicera sensu Hara. 2) Both sections Caeruleae and Lonicera are monophyletic, while neither section Nintooa nor Ishika is monophyletic. 3) Within section Ishika, each of the four subsections, Ishika, Monanthae, Bracteatae and Rhodanthae forms a clade, although the branch supports for certain clades are weak. 4) Subsection Purpurascentes is a polyphyletic group. Two Japanese species, Lonicera ramosissima and L. linderifolia form a clade with weak support, but the other species of subsection Purpurascentes distributed in China form the other clade. 5) Subsection Rhodanthae is more closely related to sections Nintooa and Lonicera than to other subsections. Based on the results, the circumscription of the higher taxonomic groups for the Japanese species of Lonicera proposed by Hara in 1983 is fundamentally acceptable.
Twenty four species of Lasianthus are documented from Bokor National Park, Kampot Province, Cambodia. Four new species, Lasianthus bokorensis, L. giganteus, L. oblanceolatus, and L. stephanocalycinus, are described based on newly collected materials. Nine species, L. austrosinensis, L. biflorus, L. chevalieri, L. clementis, L. curtisii, L. hispidulus, L. latifolius, L. sarmentosus, and L. viridiramulis, are newly recorded from Cambodia. Lasianthus viridiramulis is proposed as a replacement name for Lasianthus brevipes Craib non Valeton.
Based on recent collections, Hydrobryum luangnamtaense (sp. nov.) and Thawatchaia laotica (sp. nov.) endemic to Laos, and H. japonicum, Polypleurum longistylosum and Paracladopus chanthaburiensis, all subfamily Podostemoideae, are reported as new to the flora of Laos. As a result, 20 species in six genera of Podostemoideae are known to occur in Laos. In total, Laos harbors 35 species in nine genera of the family Podostemaceae and is the second most species-rich country in Southeast Asia. A key to the genera and a key to the species of Podostemoideae in Laos is updated.
Counts of the somatic chromosomes of two species of Damnacanthus from China are reported here for
the first time: Damnacanthus officinarum was found to be diploid with 2n = 22+1B, while D. hainanensis
was found to be tetraploid with 2n = 44+1B.
Flowering individuals of an unknown species of Gastrodia were discovered on Yakushima Island, Japan. While those plants were somewhat similar to Gastrodia fontinalis, they had shorter inflorescences, a shorter perianth tube and different number of ridges on the labellum, a combination of characteristics remarkably similar to those of G. uraiensis, which was considered to be endemic to Taiwan. Given that there were only minor differences between the original description of G. uraiensis and the plants on Yakushima Island, it was concluded that they were the same species. They represent the first known occurrence of G. uraiensis outside of Taiwan.
Cremastra Lindl. was recently discovered in western Myanmar, a new generic record for the country. The Myanmar specimens are referred to a variety of the widespread species, C. appendiculata (D. Don) Makino var. appendiculata.
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