Pyrrosia Mirb. (Polypodiaceae) comprises about 59 species, most of which occur in Southeast Asia, but some taxa are also in Africa and Oceania. Although several authors have investigated the species diversity of the genus, a phylogenetic study focusing on the relationship between species has not been available. We used sequences of three plastid markers (rbcL, rps4-trnS and atpB) to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree for 38 taxa of Pyrrosia. Trees were generated under Bayesian inference, ML analysis and MP analysis. Groups present in all analyses were used to propose a subgeneric classification of Pyrrosia. As a result, six subgenera, P. subgenus Lunae Vasques subgenus nov., P. subgenus Neoniphopsis (Nakai) Vasques comb. & stat. nov., P. subgenus Niphobolus (Kaulf.) Vasques comb. nov., P. subgenus Niphopsis (J. Sm.) Shing, P. subgenus Pyrrosia and P. subgenus Solis Vasques subg. nov., are proposed and an identification key, diagnostic traits, notes for identification and an overall discussion of each subgenus are given. The phylogenetic tree represents about 65% of the diversity of the genus. The remaining species are assigned to the proposed subgenera based on their diagnostic traits.
Miscanthus (Poaceae) comprises about 20 species, of which seven species and two forms occur in Japan. There is controversy whether M. condensatus is a separate species or a variety or subspecies of M. sinensis. To determine its taxonomic status, we conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis using DNA sequences of the atpB-rbcL, psbC-trnS(UGA), rpl20-rps12, trnL(UAA)-trnF(GAA), trnS(GGA)- trnT(UGU), and nuclear ITS regions, and the Adh1 gene from 31 samples of the seven Japanese species of Miscanthus. The neighbor-joining (NJ) tree based on the cpDNA sequences shows that M. condensatus and M. sinensis share two haplotypes, and that the nuclear ITS and Adh1 sequences of the two species are identical, making it difficult to distinguish M. condensatus from M. sinensis based on DNA sequences. The evidence indicates that hybridization between the two species has proceeded rapidly, or that M. condensatus is derived from a diverging lineage of M. sinensis. The status of M. condensatus remains controversial, but our findings support provisionally treating M. condensatus as the infraspecific taxon, M. sinensis var. condensatus.
A new species, Tarenna aurantiaca Naiki & Tagane (Rubiaceae) from Hon Ba Nature Reserve, southern Vietnam, and a new variety T. pilosa var. parvifolia Naiki & Tagane from Bokor Nature Reserve, southern Cambodia, are described and illustrated. Tarenna costata (Miq.) Merr. is reported for the first time for the flora of Cambodia. A key to the species of Tarenna in Indochina, including Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, is provided.
Heteroblemma sibauense H. Okada, Tsukaya & A. Soejima, Melastomataceae, a new species from Sg. (River) Sibau Area, Putussibau, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, is described and illustrated. It is unique in having cauliflorous flowers borne singly in each inflorescence.
A new variety, Didymoplexis obreniformis J.J. Sm. var. maliauensis Suetsugu, M. Suleiman & Tsukaya (Orchidaceae), found during a botanical expedition in the Maliau Basin Conservation Area, is described and illustrated. Variety maliauensis resembles var. obreniformis, which is known only from Java, Indonesia, in having a remarkably retuse lip but differs in having a distinct central ridge on the sepals and petals, smaller and narrower lip, narrower lateral petals, and narrower dorsal and lateral sepals.
Potamogeton ×tosaensis Kadono, Horii & Yamanouchi (Potamogetonaceae) is described here as a new hybrid. Although similar to P. octandrus, it is morphologically distinguishable in several traits. Most conspicuous of these are the connate stipules and fusiform turion bearing one acerose leaf. The plants were found only in and around Kochi City, Shikoku. Potamogeton octandrus and P. pusillus are the putative parents.
Several new populations of the mycoheterotrophic orchid Kalimantanorchis nagamasui from Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia, are reported. The species was previously considered endemic to West Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia. Given that the continued discovery of new species and distributional records of mycoheterotrophic plants have been made from only a limited number of surveys in a small selection of sites, it is likely that further surveys in Borneo will reveal additional occurrences. The description of the morphology, in particular on the underground parts and size variation, of K. nagamasui is also updated.
Two new localities of the mycoheterotrophic plant, Sciaphila alba (Triuridaceae), are reported and the description of its morphology, in particular on color polymorphism of staminate flowers, based on a new collection from Tatau, Sarawak and from herbarium studies at KYO is updated. Sciaphila alba had been reported only from Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak, Borneo.
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