The hypothesized hybrid origin of Aster koshikiensis (Asteraceae, Astereae), a species endemic to the Koshiki Islands, Japan, was tested using karyological features and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Molecular phylogenetic analyses suggested that A. koshikiensis is a member of the A. leiophyllus complex, while a karyological analysis indicated its close relationship with A. satsumensis, a species on southern Kyushu, Japan.
Liparis hostifolia (Orchidaceae) on Minami-iwo-to Island in the Bonin (Ogasawara) Archipelago was rediscovered for the first time in 79 years during a field survey in 2017. Its identity was confirmed by morphological comparison and DNA extractions from herbarium specimens collected between 1914 and 1938. Results from the molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that L. hostifolia belongs to the L. makinoana complex. In comparison with other members of the L. makinoana complex, the broadly ovate labellum, short dormancy period, and flowering from November to March are unique characteristics of L. hostifolia. Results from the molecular phylogenetic analyses also suggested that L. hostifolia has had a long-isolated history in the Bonin Archipelago and probably migrated from temperate East Asia.
The classification of Oxalis subsect. Oxalis (Oxalidaceae) is revised based on phylogenetic, cytological and morphological evidence. For the flora of Japan, one new species and one new variety are described, and five new combinations are proposed. The new species, O. nipponica, resembles O. griffithii, but is distinguished by its unique phylogeny, larger genome and distribution. Oxalis nipponica is subdivided into two subspecies, nipponica and kantoensis based on phylogeny and fruit length. Subsp. kantoensis is further divided into two varieties based on ploidy level, length of the fruit and seeds and habitat. While diploids correspond to var. kantoensis, the tetraploids correspond to the newly described var. alpigena. Variety alpigena resembles O. acetosella and has been confused with it. Fourteen taxa, including one hybrid, are recognized in subsect. Oxalis.
DNA analysis and morphological observation were conducted for a putative Potamogeton hybrid endemic to the Fuji Five Lakes and Lake Ashi and Potamogeton × leptocephalus from Lake Biwa, Japan. Both proved to be hybrids between P. maackianus and P. perfoliatus. However, the hybrid from the Fuji Five Lakes and Lake Ashi was distinct from P. × leptocephalus in certain morphological characteristics. It is described as a new variety P. × leptocephalus var. fujiensis.
Tipularia harae S. C. Chen (= Didiciea japonica H. Hara) and T. cunninghamii (King & Prain) S. C. Chen, S. W. Gale & P. J. Cribb (= D. cunninghamii King & Prain) are considered to be peloric mutants of Tipularia japonica Matsum. and Tipularia josephi Rchb. f. ex Lindl., respectively. Due to their sympatric distribution, the two taxa should be recognized as infraspecific variants of the same species. New combinations and new status, T. japonica f. harae (S. C. Chen) Suetsugu and T. josephi f. cunninghamii (King & Prain) Suetsugu, are proposed. A lectotype for T. japonica is also designated.
Acranthera collina (Rubiaceae), a new species from Sarawak, Malaysia, on the island of Borneo, is described and illustrated. Acranthera collina resembles A. bullata Merr. but is easily distinguished by its ca. 10 pairs of lateral veins (vs. 13–15 pairs), 6-merous flowers (vs. 5-merous), golden yellow corolla (vs. red) and anthers ca. 5 mm long (vs. 10 mm long).
The Chinese endemic species Barbula chenia Redf. & B. C. Tan is newly reported from southwest Japan. In contrast to most species of Barbula sensu Saito (1975) or Zander (1993), B. chenia is distinguished by an obtuse leaf apex and thick-walled, both adaxially and abaxially bulging, mammillose laminal cells on the distal surface. These cells are sometimes covered with obscurely differentiated, multiple papillae. A description, illustrations and ecological information, based on the Japanese material, is provided.
The taxonomic identity of Lecanorchis japonica Blume var. tubiformis T. Hashim. (Orchidaceae) is re-evaluated. Based on the tepals abruptly reflexed near their apex, transversely rectangular, shorter midlobe of the lip and the tubular basal part of the lip, it was concluded that Lecanorchis japonica var. tubiformis should be reduced to a synonym of L. virella T. Hashim.
The discovery of Spiranthes hongkongensis S. Y. Hu & Barretto (Orchidaceae) on Ishigaki Island, Japan, during herbarium studies in KPM is reported. Previously, S. hongkongensis was reported only from China (Guangdong, Hong Kong, Taiwan), and Malaysia (Borneo). Spiranthes hongkongensis is morphologically similar to S. australis, but is distinguishable by the membranous, narrow, truncate rostellum attached to the middle of the pollinia without a viscidium, shorter column and distinctly 3-lobed stigma.
Kaori Murayama, Richard H. Ree, Kuo-Fang Chung, Chih-Chieh Yu and Noriyuki Fujii. 2019. Taxonomical Review of Pedicularis ser. Verticillatae (Orobanchaceae) in Taiwan.
Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 70 (2): 103-118.
"Pedicularis refracta Maxim. var. transmorrisonensis (Hayata) Hurus. " (p. 116, right, Taxonomy) should be replaced by "Pedicularis refracta (Maxim.) Maxim. var. transmorrisonensis (Hayata) Hurus. "