At the beginning the strategy for the enlightenment of creativity was stated by Mr. Akiyama. He proposed that there were noticeable phenomena of paiallel development in creativity enlightenment in industry and education in a school each other, but if they were demand from the industrial world to the school education, it would be illogical. He stated three tendencies noted in the study of creativity in the industrial world. (1) There is creativity training to solve a puzzle by divergent thinking in a free atomosphere. However, he insists such a way as the puzzle training alone can not solve the problem of creativity. (2) It is adopted to try such ways as the techniques of Brain Storming, Kawakita-Jiro, etc. A focus of our attention is to utilize a temporal task forced group. (3) Educational planning is made in order to settle some practical problems. In the next place, Mr. Matsumoto proposed the following point. He supposed that the creativity research in our country mainly belongs to the requirement from the industrial world. This is a specific characteristics of the creativity research as a historical and actual intensive point which has occupied the center of politics, economy, military affairs, education and culture. Furthermore, the creativity study has been influenced by tendencies in U. S. A.
The chairman explained the aim of the symposium as follows. We must consider some problems of the development of the infant of today, and must discuss what kind of contributions we can really make to early childhood education today. The five members made successively the following propositions from their own standpoints. H. Kodama pointed out from the study by the Early Childhood Educational Association of Japan that the development of the infant of today did not seem to be so developed as discussed in general, and that the umbalance was so conspicuous in their developments. He also brought foreward the following three propositions concerning the problems of early childhood education in the today. (1) The teaching of the intellectual abilities should be performed in early childhood on the principle of development that they develop through varied practical experience during this period. (2) Because the infant of today seem to be very poor in the individuality, it would be much needed that we develop it by means of a curriculum filled with the free activities in early childhood education. (3) The evaluation of early childhood education should be done about the balanced development in the childhood of the whole personality and about their adjustment to living.Moreover, it must be done under the prospect of the long term. G. Hatano discussed the research strategies of infant education as follows from the standpoint of the educational psychology. He has proved by means of his valuable “training experiment” that the infant had much more “potentiality of learning” than we had ever thought possible. However, he supposed that the results of the “training experiment” did not always give a definite conclusion to the infant education. Therefore, he proposed the following research strategies of infant education which would give some valuable suggestions. One of them is the comparative study for the effects of some teaching methods which are carried out in considerably controlled conditions. Another is the “training experiment”consisted of program which is similar to the practical aspects of infant education as much as possible. He concluded that it is much needed to combine these two research strategies in order to get some valuable suggestions for the practice of the infant education. S. Takagi maintained from the standpoint of child psychiatry that the development the infant should be reorganized in the relation between the physical and the mental aspects. He explained as follows: (1) The infant from 3 to 5 years inharmonious tendencies in the relation among some physical organs. Therefore, they are physically and mentally oversensitive and intolerable to stimuli.(2) The mental development of the infant is closely related to the growth of brain and nervous system, so that they should be considered in the practical education. He also stated that we have to consider various conditions surrounding the infants when we would diagnose whether or not they have the problem, because their problem behavior is relative in its nature. Finally he criticized that today the parents gave too many different kinds of information to their children. He emphasized that the parents should be careful to give the children.such an emotional atmosphere as they could accept the information without any resistance. T. Tashiro indicated, from the standpoint of infant pedegogy, some controversial problems in the world of the present infant education, such as the conception of infant school, the compulsory education for the infant and so on. As to the problem of the development of children of today, he insisted that the urgent problem in the world of infant education was the gradual increasing of the spiritless and nervous infant rather than the phenomena of developmental acceleration.
The discussion was about the current problems of remedial education: firstly the definition of remedial education, secondly the relation between medical science and remedial education, thirdly the method to develop rehablitation for the handicapped in co-operation with other various science. According to one proposer, the notion of remedial education might be the same as special education means. In the field of special education, the word, remedial education is not necessary, because the word, special education could contain the notion of remedial education. One proposer insisted that remedial education should not be limited in the field of special education, but it should be applied in the education for normal children. Remedial education is human education from which children acquire the essence of human life, and it must be the education in which children could find the value of a human beings. Today there exists non-human education, so it is necessary to change the education into the real remedial education. Because remedial education should be therapeutic education. The notion of remedial education was discussed widely among the members, though they could not come to a conclusion. But it is not an important matter for remedial education. The matter is that we have to look at the children carefully from our professional view of each field and have to devote ourselves to the way we educate the physically handicapped or mentally retarded in their education. Some proporsers pointed that teachers and doctors were independent of each other and insisted that the co-operation of doctors and teachers was necessay. Teachers are not interested in therapy, and doctors are not interested in education. But it is necessary to establish a new field connecting terapy with education. School psychology in U. S. A. fills the gap between education and the clinic, which is the study mediating between clinical psychology and education. It is necessary to establish this field in Japan. Medical Science by itself does not give enough knowledge and technique for the field of special education or remedial education. And conversely special education by itself does not do so. In the field of education, the ways of observing children and the techniques of teaching are not yet firmly established today. It is important to create the co-operative system after making the independent charge in each field. Doing so. it is important that teachers have to some extent the medical knowledge and the techniques which can be applied to special education. Then special education can be developed more smoothly. On the other hand, there was an opinion against it. Remedial education does not concern to medical matter but it should be a therapy in education, and medical science itself is a basic but it does not greatly take part in education. Even if medical science is important, it is very difficult for teachers to gain medical knowledge and techniques. There was an opinion that team approach may be necessary to find a way out of the difficulties. But some knowledge of disease and defects is necessary in order to have team approach. The team approach is basically necessary for education of the children who need therapies. To participate in the team approach as a member of it, one should be a specialist who has his own theory and his method which come out of the theory. One who does not have the system of his theory can not have the qualifications as a member. Special qualifications are necessary for a person who would be the chairman of team approach. That is, the chairman's personality-how he has the leadership or how he works with the team members is very important.
The subject of the symposium is “the relation between educational psychology and education technology”. Chairman, and Proposers are above mentioned members, and a summary of discussions is as follows: H. Azuma When we refer to the relation between educational psychology and educational technology, we must pay attention to the currents of two traditions in educational psyc ology. One is the current of rational aspect such as learning and behavioral evaluation. Another is the current of affective aspect such as motivation and counseling. Until today educational technology has been related to the ratioal aspect of educational psychology. Further, as we see in Skinner's programmed instruction, the study of optimization by the psychologist has been limited to the manageable problem. The definition of educational psychology itself has ambiguity, but the role of educational psychology for educational technology is to clear the interrelation between the conditions of the learner and that of the environment, and to give the insight for educational technology. And we must introduce the affective aspect of educational psychology, which is fundamental science, into educational technology. S. Ono The main purpose of educational technology is generally the optimization of education. On the other hand the purpose of (educational) psychology is to establish the law of human behavior (in education). Psychology is a fundamental science that supports the educational tecanology, because the conditions of optimalized education are controlled basically by the law of human behavior. As an example of this problem we can select the model for optimization of learning proposed by R. D. Smallwood. It is the remarkable feature of his article to introduce the method of D. P.(Dynamic programing) into T. M. From a psychological stand-point we are not quite satisfied with his method. It lacks basic psychological consideration in learning processes when the learner is treated as a black box. The statistical model has a more psychological aspect. We are able to make use of the method of D.P. for the psychological learning model. H. Nishinosono When we refer to the relation between educational psychology and educational technology, the theme is centered on the instructional technology concerned with the process of instruction-learning in the educational technology. Generally instructional technology is defined as educational optimization, which is inadequate. Because education belongs to the space of information. In this conception education only belongs to the space of control in the space of information, but education also belongs to the space of creation in the space of information. And it is difficult to set up the objective function about the optimization in the field of education. If we can make use of the knowlege of educational psychology in the technological approach, the practice of instructional technology will become easy, because the lawfulness of educational psychology is the means of effective goal attainment and the informative communication. But there are some questions when we make use of it. These are,(1) The method to provide for the connection from educational objectives to the learner's thinking process is not certain.(2) We have not yet the method of description in order to make clear the thinking process.(3) The control grouping method usually used in psychology are fit for the inductive laws, but it is not fit for the technological approach.(4) The teacher's description of subject matters and learners in the plan of instruction is not objective but subjective.