The followings ubjectsw ere discussedb y Educationalp sychologistsM, athematician and School teachers. The organizer of this symposium intends, through all the propositions and discussions, to make clear some points on mathematics teaching by examining the acceptance of such hypothesis as follows: 1. Children's learning in school is the core of the whole human learning activities. Therefore, the learning psychology or the educational psychology which dose not cover that field can be called “pseudo-learning psychology” or “non-educational psychology” 2. Children's learning activities in school are the products of teaching activities. Therefore, the most effective method for studying the children's learning process is the action-research with the teaching strategy which evokes a certain purposive activity. 3. The concept that children's learning activities in school is only due to the evelopmental stage like age or grade, etc, is far from a proper and effective theorization. For, such a view ignores the relation between learning activities and subject matters, and also abandons the effort to operate teaching activities. 4. Children's learning in school is never the same as putting data or informations into a computer, but it is to reconstruct the rule-systems. 5. The problems in early-mathematics teaching can be understood and solved only through the study of class activities.
The purpose of this symposium was to make clear what problems were pointed out from a standpoint of educational practices in schools and how we could clarify the problems from a viewpoint of psychology in oder to teach arts and crafts of presetit days. Y. Kawatoko referred to the developmental stages of drawing by kellog, and presented general principles that we should teach expressive acts as sign by a rule of wide application. H. Oogida showed some clinical examples of diagnosis according to McLee's “Drawing-Completion-Test” N. Ide showed mainly practical examples of relationship between space cognition of infants and teaching them expression. G. Suzuki showed practical examples of relationship between space cognition of schoolchildren and teaching them expression. These examples show concretely that in teaching arts the space cognition of children develops through learning rules of expression on their works.
What are the tasks of educationalp sychologyfo r the teachingo f Japanese language? Various reviewsa nd facts were presenteda s f ollows Kaoru Yokosuka, a pedagogist, points out the importance of the “image” in understanding as well as expression of Japanese language. Nobuo Ito, a veteran teacher of elementary school, offers the typical episodes in his as well as other teacher's class roomw hich suggestt he teaching-learningp rocess of general concept. He avowsh imselft o have owedr ather to the study of linguisticsth an educational psychology. Isao Sato, a psychologist,h olds the indispensabilityto study the teaching-learning processo f Japanesel anguagei n the childreno f elementarys choolt, houghp ast studiesh ave inclinedt oward the study of developmenbt efores choola ge. He also proposest he importance of reading aloud, or dramatizing. Accordingto KiyoshiA mano,a psychologistc,h ildrenb eforee nteringt he schoola rrive at the consciousnesos n the linguisticr eality of Japanese languaget o some degree. Its completionm ust,h owever,b e expectedt o the educationo felementarys chool. But in reality children cannot attain the expected level in the present elementary schools. Amano proposesa systematice ducationf or the linguistica bility,k nowledgea, nd consciousnesisnelementary school. As to the co-operation betweent e achers and educationalp sychologistst,h e point of rough agreementi n this symposiumm ay be the psychologicaul nfoldingo f the latent principles which lie in the excellent practices by teachers. Masasuke Kuroda, chairman.
Four speakers, Hiroshi Kubota (SHIRAUME Women University), Koreya Endo (SHIROISHI Primary School I), Toshiro Suzuki (MIYAGI University of Education) and Akira Yokoyama (AICHI Prefectual University), put forward their views on the questions of today's conditions of “learning” (in a narrow sense). Kubota made an approach to the subject from a standpoint of pre-school education, Endo from that of primary school education and Yokoyama from his experience of a “movement for making play yards” in which he himself engaged. Kubota gave a concrete example of play activities led by an idea that they must be based on those things which children are most interested in. In this case the children drew from their activities a burning point for open discussion and build up a kind of hypothesis on the point which they verified afterwards. Although Suzuki made much of the fact that the play is an activity of “child-initiative type” in contrast to “adult-initiative”learning, he said the mutual influence between these two types of activities should not be disregarded. Yokoyama lays stress on the tensional relations between conceptual cognition and practical cognition. To put it shortly, the reason why recent children have their play taken away is that our society today has gone so far from normal as to affect every teaching activities in many of educational systems. Therefore, although it is important to accept the significance of play in childhood in relation with their learning, the defect of teaching activities can not be fulfilled simply by making the play complete. This conclusion was accepted among the audience.
This symposiumw as taken to discuss on the relativity and universalityi n language, contrastingt he studieso flanguaged evelopmenwt ith N.A. Chomsky'sg enerativeg rammor and J. Piaget's cognitivep sychology. A. Komurap resented “ On the developmenot f grammari n two-words entencesp eriod” a child T., she found as follows: (1) The particles (Joshi) were used from 19th month to 21th month concentratically.(2) Most fundamental cases were subjective case and bjective case.and refered to the syntacticc ase relation of 1 year-oldc hild. Analyzingu tterance data on a child T., she found as follows: (1) The particles (Joshi) were used from 19th month to 21th month concentratically.(2) Most fundamental cases were subjective case and objective case.(3) The acquisition of each case was closely related with usage of verbs. Then, she recommended that semantics was essential to syntactic approach. T. Watamaki presented “On the development of syntax in the earlier twoword sentence period.” Analyzing utterance data on a child F., he found as follows: (1) Most of utterance ere “subject+predicative verb”,“object + predicative verb”.(2) The child has gotten the fundamental rule of word order which sentence was used to accompany a verb in sentence-end in Japanese. Then, he refered that it was difficult to applicate the pivot-open structure theory to acquisition of Japanese. J. Iwata reviewed the modern vocabulary studies on “The relation of word-understanding and cognition”. He commented as follows: (1) The traditional quantitative approach has changed to the qualitative one under the influence of cognitive psychology (J. Piaget etc.).(2) Main topics were on the relation of egocentric cognition and language acquisition (C. Chomsky), the meaning conservation (H. Sinclair), the differentiation of dimensiones in object,(M. P. Maratsos), and the differentiation of spatial & temporal relation (E.V. Clark).(3) What extent to the cognitive structure we can catch depends on the depth of the vocabulary understanding test. I. Takahashi presented the result of six year's follow up study since the birth of his son, on “The linguistic approach for vocabulary acquisition”. According to his result, his son acquired above 9000 words before full six years old. These were rich in number far beyond ones of any other past studies. And he concluded that one of the main factor to make vocabulary richer was the longer recording times. He expended 10 hours every day in recording his son's speech. After questions and answers on the basis of these presentations, K. Amano commented on (1) the identification of word unit in Japanese,(2) the relativity between meaning and form,(3) the pivot-open structure theory, the relation between language and cognition. Then he recommened the importance of “Lexico-grammatical aspect” to language development study.
N.Nishihira( YamanashiU niv.),t he organizer,e xplainedt he plan of this symposiaa s follows. This symposiaw as especiallyo rganizedw ith youngerr esearchersa s centralf igures,a nd reporters were required to present their theoretical and practical views as to designs, prespectivesa nd dreams of the future research. Moreover,t o focus the discussionh, e introducedt he subjectr egardingt he necessityo f systematizinga nd theorizingn umerousd ata of investigationas nd researchesp resentedup to this time. Reporter, S. Yamaguchi (Okayama Univ.) presented the problem of the leisure of adolescents of today and insisted the necessity to establish method of ecological study, letting researcherst hemselvesb e identifiedw ith adolescentsb, ecauset oday's study of adolescent had been superficialf,a r from their actual realities. ReporterM. Fukutomi( TokyoG akugeiU niv.)p resentedt he problemm ainlyr egrading to the sex of adolescencea nd laid stress on the followingt hree points. (1) As to the sex, investigatorso f adolescentp sychologyw ere apt to observea dolescence from their own frame of reference. (2) Whenw e tried to understandu niversali mage of adolescencew, e had to consider that the problemo f generationa nd socialityw ere necessarilym ixed w ith it. (3) We alwaysh ad to put the starting point of study on adolescenceh imself. ReporterR. Yamada (YamanashUi niv.)p resentedt he problemr egardingt he methodt o studyw ered ividedi nto two. one is approachf rom outside,t he other is into insidei nquiring the meaning,n amely phenomenologicaml ethod. and the latter was more appropriate method. He also emphasized that the problem of ego was the central one of adolescent psychologya,n dm an shouldb e undersoodb oth as multi-dimensionaelx istancea ndf rom the social and historical standpoint. Discussions The issues debated were: The issues debated were (1) Each reporter criticizedt,h e fact that psychologistos f adolescenceup to date were apt to understand the adolescent from outside aparting from him and insisted that future researches should be carried on getting into the adolescent (or from the view poin more closelyc onnectedw ith him). Counterarguments of rather elder psychologists were that the method to observe apart from adolescence also should be approved, because to get into him did not mean always to speak or behave with him, and to understand adolescent was possible through the phenomenological method. to gaze at him continually and to investigate the meaning of his speach or behavior. (2) The necessity to establish the systematic theory of adolescent psychology was emphasized, and every participants acknowledged that utmost efforts should be exerted to explore the direction toward the theorizing and systematizing by means of integrating considerable volumes of raw data and results of various investigations.
This symposiumw as plannedt o achievet he followingo bjectives. (1) Despite of the criticisms offered by Prof. Mantaro Kido, Prof. Masaki Masashi and Prof. AritsuneT suzuki,t he problemsi n educationalm easurementa nde valuationh ave so far been discussed without considering the goal and value of education. As a consequence, m ost of the researcheso n educationale valuationh ave ignoreds tudyingth e taxonomy of education,a nd have shownn o concerna bout the studyo f teachinga nd learning. In addition,t hey have causedm uchd elay in studyingt he validityo f achievementte st. Under these circumstancesw, e attemptedt o clarifyt he causes for sucht rends, and finds ome clues for solving the problem. (2) It is difficult to recognize that the research on measurement and evaluation has developedi n a relationshipc loselyi nterwovenin to the practiceo f education. In this symposium, therefore, we intended to establish a much closer relationship between them by criticizings ome aspectso f the researchesi n this area. The contentso f the reportss ubmittedb y four reporters can be summarizeda sfollows: Report1(DaisukeM itsui) He presented his arguments from the viewpoint of industrial psychology (1) The recent trend in dealing with test and evaluation in education has become very similar in nature to that in industry. In the industrial field, the need of the employer is the most important factor, while the needs and feeling of the employees are a factor of secondary importance. On the other hand, in the educational field, we should not only evaluate the present state of the abilities of a child, but also make any possible efforts in the process of evaluation to develope his potential capabilities which will prepare him for the future. (2) It is generally said that emphasis should be placed upon evaluation rather than measurement. However, the interrelationphip between these two approaches needs further investigation. (3) In order to formulate a new test theory on the basis of criterion referenced measurement, we have to make a survey of the prevalance of scholastic abilities, and reexamine the concepts of the objectivity and validity of testing. Report2 (idenori Akiba) He reported the historical development of test and evaluation from which he suggested that we should learn the following two points. (1) Although it has been asserted that measurement should be replaced by evaluation, this has not yet been brought to realization. Therefore, we should return to the age of “Eight Years tudy”, and reexamine that Study from the viewpoint of the contemporary new thought of ability. (2) The movement for measurement in the 19th century was carried out in the age which did not pay any attention to the “Right of Learning”. Nowadays we should investigate the study of evaluation from the standpoint of “Right of Learning” and “Right of Development” Report3 (Kuniaki Miyajima). The method of evaluation in the prevailing cumulative record has adopted a form in which bnth the methods of analitical evaluation and norm referenced evaluation exist together. However, we find a great inconsistency between these two methods of evaluation because we think that, in theory, analitical evaluation is inevitably associated with criterion referenced evaluation, while synthetical evaluation, with norm referenced evaluation. In this sence, a proposition made by the Kyoto Prefectural Board of Education is worthy of our consideration. Report4 (Keiichi Saito) He defined educational evaluation by stating that a teacher judges whether his educational action upon his pupils is effective or not in the process of teaching, and then evaluate the direction of his teaching; in other words, educational evaluation can be thought to be a judgement for selecting a direction for his teaching.
This review is concerned with the studies of classroom management from standpoint of behavior modification, which have been carried out systematically from the 1967's. The present paper (a) summarizes the data about the effect of modification techniques of classroom behaviors,(b) explores the availability of techniques for teachers to prevent and modify classroom behavior problems in children, and (c) examines the problems in studies about classroom management and suggests the directions of future studies. The sections provided here are as follows. 1. Classroom management and the standpoint of behavior modification- the purposes of this review-. 2. Techniques of behavior modification for classroom management. This section includes the following contents, that is,(1) praise and attention,(2) token reinforcement program,(3) punishment,(4) respons cost,(5) time out, and (6) self control. 3. Teacher and classmate as a therapeutic agent in classroom. 4. Problems and future directions of studies. The last section discusses mainly the problems of (a) generalization and maintenance of the effect of behavior modification techniques in classroom and (b)“to what behaviors should we apply modification techniques in classroom”. And then, this review suggests that the studies appling modification techniques to classroom management should have the direction of self control and intrinsic reinforcement by child himself.
A great number of theories have been advanced to explain and to interpret human behavior or response over the years. Much time, however, has spent to define modeling process as an observational learning, and to differentiate it from “imitation”,“identification”,“introjection”,“social facilitation”,“copying”,“contagion”,“incorporation” or “role-taking”. Bandura designated the phenomena ordinarily subsummed under labels imitation or identification as modeling. He has pointed out that the term modeling has much broader psychological effects than the term implied by imitation, and that the distinguishing properties of identification are too diffuse. Modeling influences which Bandura specified and defined from many researches conducted within this frame work have three separate types of effects depending on the different processes involved. First, observers can acqire new patterns of behavior by watching the performances of others. Second, the inhibition of previously learned responses are influenced by modeled activities of others with reward or punishment, and disinhibition effect is influenced by observing models engage in thretening or prohibited activities without adverse consequences. The third influence of modeling is the response facilitation effect by which observers can facilitate their own performance formerly learned. Modeling theory is in more favor of cognitive function containing symbolic processes, rehearsal, coding and vicarious reinforcement in making matching responses of others than contingent reinforcement theories or associative theories. Especially, Bandura advanced the view that the acquisition of matching responses was not demonstrated by Miller and Dollard's expriment, but the performance of formerly learned matching responses. We collected a number of the litrature of studies conducted for the last five years under modeling processes, which were classified by eight categories containing social behavior, problem-solviing behavior, choice behavior, performance and movement, language learning, self-regulation, education and behavior disorders, and miscellanious. Then we summarized and interpreted them according to eight categories mentioned adove. We had impression that modeling theory should further be developed by researches conducted in so many psychological fields, and would hopefully be applied to interpetation of social behavior, educational aids and clinical therapeutical treatment of behavior disorders.