In Japan, the first case of an autistic child was reported by Taeko Nakazawa in 1952 some years later than those of Kanner and Asperger. After several years' discussion concerning the definition and diagnosis of autism, the education including therapy and training for the autistic children was began in 1961. Thus far more than 500 special classes for emotionally disturbed children were set up in the regular schools throughout the country, and one of the biggest problems left was “Which is better for the autistic children, traditional psychotherapeutic or behavior therapeutic approach?” In this symposium, one of the three speakers presented a paper from the psychotherapeutic point of view and the others from a behavioristic point of view. The speakers and discussants in favour of behavior therapy stated precisely the goal, training program and teaching technique in a man-to-man setting and in small group settings. On the other hand, those in favour of psychotherapy critisized the others by the stating that the most important thing was to improve the relationship between the therapist and the child, which,behaviorists ignored by concentrating the efforts to teach the autistic children self-help, speaking and academic skills, etc. The author concluded: It is nesessary to define “human relationship” in terms of observable events and assess the change of behavior objectively. Otherwise the improvement of the relationship between the therapist and the child would never be verified objectively. Another important problem left in both approach in this symposium was how to find what variable would be effective in order to change the autistic behavior patterns.
The purpose of the symposium was to clarify how the study of classrom teaching could contribute not only to solve the problems in the classroom but also to explore the fundamental principles of educational psychology, through discussions about the interaction between the experimental educational psychology and the study of classroom teaching. Four speakers, two discussants and many members praticipated the discussion. The main topics discussed were as follows: (1)Conceptions of the study of classroom teaching, (2)Roles of educational psychologists in the study of classroom teaching, and (3)Storage and use of research products. On the first topic, one viewpoint was that it was useless to explore general rules in the classroom teaching. An important thing was not the formal characteristics but the real phenomena of the classroom teaching. The classroom teaching was to examine facts one by one as a science of experience in order to use the resuts obtained in the classroom. It was also of no use to explore the objective rules of classroom teaching without comprehention of the specific relationship between teachers and pupils who have long interaction in the same classroom. According to another viewpoint, it was less useful to gather facts one by one in the classroom teaching, but it was quite useful to do scientific study of classroom teaching in order to construct the general theory of teaching beyond facts and to solve various kinds of problems in the classroom teaching. As to the second topic, i. e., the roles of educational psychologisis, two different opinions were shown. One was to emphasize the direct contributions to classroom teaching and the other was to emphasize the proposal of general suggestions for optimizing combinations of contents and methods in teaching and for considering group dynamics of pupils in the classroom. On the third topic, it was recommended by many participants to publish a “Handbook of classroom teaching”. The Handbook should include lists of informations about sets of objectives, contents, methods, teaching strategies, teaching tactics, teachers' individualities, pupils' characteristics, actual teaching learning behaviors and acquired effects on pupils' learning.
This symposium was organized to give four young psychologists, who were chosen as being interested in developmental researches out of eleven selected, the opportunity to report what they had gained from participating the 21st ICP. They had several times of disccusion beforehand and also had leading developmental psychologists in Japan answer a questionnaire on methodological issues of their fields. Four interesting problems emerged from these processes, and each speaker reported his thoughts and impressions through the ICP on each topic as follows. “Theory and Application”(Nobuko Uchida) Hypotheses for constructing any developmental thory should be tested as naturally as possible. At the ICP, majority of individual papers were based on the laboratory work only, and the theme of symposia and lectures were mostly under the influence of Piaget's theory. “Necessity for the Ecological Approach”(Nobumoto Tajima) The ecological stuy can be regarded as a source of hypotheses and variables in question. The hypotheses ought to be tested in laboratories and their varidity should again be verified in an ecological setting. Few ecological studies were presented at the ICP, with an exception of Witkin, H.A., who advocated the necessity for the eco-cultural approach in his field. “Importance of the Longitudinal Study”(Michiko Takahashi) Understanding of the importance of early experiences and the research movement from descriptive studies to scientific explanation underlie today's need for the new type of longitudinal study which is more than repetition of the same treatment at different age levels. Resbarcher's role as an intervener in the program should be regarded as one of the active and influencial factors. There was no presentation based on this new type of longitudinal study at the ICP. “Cross-Cultural Study”(Naomi Miyake) At international conferences, some have begun to emphasize the importance to guarantee the cross-cultural equivalance of psychological construct in question itself, rather than that of tools and analytic methods only. Cross-cultural studies would be useful for researchers to realize that there is always the cultural relativity in the human sciences. Their presentation was followed by the active discussion with participants from the floor and the speakers are heartily thankful for their seniors' sincere concern toward them. In addition to what they gained through the ICP, their experience at this symposium would surely motivate their further researches.
This is a report of a study being conducted concurrently in Japan and in the U.S. for the purpose of cross-national comparison. The prepent authors are co-directors, organizing research teams in respective countries. Japanese data reported here were collected by a Japanese team and the U. S. data were credited to the American team. Final analyses and interpretations are under progress. The present report is to be taken as a preliminary report and Azuma is responsible for the interpretations given here. The Sample: 76 Japanese and 67 American mother-child pairs. The average age of the children were 3:8 at the start of the study. 16 Japanese agricultural samples and 7 dropouts were not included in the present report. Teacher studies were not included either. Other specifications. Tests and inteviews: Confirming interview, CFI, SPD, MTQ, control strategy, BUC, PPVT, the second mother interview with DEQ Briefly explained according to the order of administration, interactive games using slides. Table1. lists items where there were large differences between Japan and U. S. mothers from mothers' reports on what she did or she would do. There is a tendency that American mothers did try more structured and purposeful teaching than Japanese mothers did. In short, Japanese modal tendency was characterized as unstructured environmental enrichment approach and that of America was called structured intensional guidance approach. This checks with the finding of the ‘locus of control’ mothers found to appreciate parental role in shaping school achievement higher than do Japanese mothers. and Japanese mothers were found to ascribe more to natural capacity and the luck than do American mothers. The picture given by the results of interactive games seemed to be in harmony with foregoing discussion. The Japanese approach is characteristically “show all, let them choose”. The American apprapproach, on the contrary, is “you should see that they learn for sure what you have to teach”. Differences in correlation between maternal variables and child performances were also of interest. Let us define an effective mother as the one who show styles positively correlated with high child performance. The typical Japanese effective mother is: less direct command, lenient to task resistance, emotionally accepting (B); playful and enjoying, task free, less controling and less pressing (U); flexible and analytical (C). The typical American effective mother is: clear orientation direct command, less cornpromizing with task resistance, demands verbalization,(B); control the situation, participating (U). To sum up, while effective mothers have a lot in common in their opinions and expectations, actual tactics and strategies are quite different perhaps reflecting the difference of cultural background. An attractive hypothesis is that the tactics and attitudes which are consistent with the prevailing culture relates more closely to the development of cognitive readiness in that culture. This hypothesis, however, has to be tested yet. All these are very tentative and impressionistic generalizations, which of course should be revised after discussion with our colleagues. We are also aware of the need of identifying various types of maternal approaches rather than trying to draw overall pictures. At the present preliminary stage, this presentation is made to show that we have a good pros-pect of disclosing some interesting cross-cultural patterns through further analysis.
At first, Misumie xplainedw hy we planedt his symposium: Most of the measurement scaleso f teachers'l eadershipw hichh ave beenu sed these days seemedt o be improper. Using such scales,t he developmenot f teachers' leaderships tudyc ouldn ot be expected. Then we proposed the teachers' leadership and the school morale measurement scales which have beenm ade for the past year. We wanted to be criticizedo n them at this symposiums o that we mightd evelopa better measuremenmt ethodo f the teachers'l eadership. Regardingt his studya s one step of studyingt eachers'l eadershipw, e plannedt o discussa t the symposium, whati t shouldb e. Next, Misumci omparedt he present situationo f the leaderships tudiesi in Industrial Organizationo r GovernmenOt fficesw ith those in educationalw orld. He explained the theoreticalf rameworko f P-M leadershipt heory. Two symposistsm ade the following reports. Symposist: Yoshizaki At first, he reviewedt he past studieso f teachers' leadershipm ainlyi n Japan. Then he broughtup five problems. Next, he explained our study: The measurement of teachers' leadership was conducted by distributing a questionnaire to pupils, asking them to rate their teachers. Subjects were 3010 5 and 6 graders. First we conducted questionnaire items normal varimax method and there were five factors in teachers' leadership behavior. Secondly we conducted them on a group principal method for selecting questionnaire items of P(Performance)and M(Maintenance)scales. The school morale measurement scales were made at the same procedure as the leadership scales. Symposist: Shinohara Teachers' leadership was divided into four types, depending on the intensity of the two dimensions(P dimension, M dimension). The relationship of four leadership types to pupils' school morale was examined. As the result, PM came first, followed by M, P, and pm in that order, and the differences were statistically significant.
This symposium was especially organized with younger researchers in order to exchange and discuss our practical problems. K. Murakami reported that during her training of referential communication skills over a month, the changing of roles of speaker and listener was found to be effective. Y. Oshima emphasized the importance of two-way communication situation, where there was no fixed roles of speaker or listener. She also suggested to use “concepts” as referents. N. Hamana introduced the “Mother-Child Interaction Process Analysis” developed by Hokkaido U. group. She mentioned the importance of mother's responsiveness to her child as the global result of their ongoing project. T. Muto especially emphasized the importance of sponta-neous actions of children at the communication situation. Reporting their previous studies, he showed how both cognitive and social factors affected children's questioning behavior. Iwata suggested the expected usefulness of introducing the situation where no linguistic code could alone be almighty. This might clarify the power of linguistic codes at the real communication stituation. Usui and Tajima expressed their strong interest on ecological methodology and explained its value. Miyake tried to summarize the reports. According to her, the first two focused on the referential communication itself and try to see its relation to other tasks. the third one, on the other hand, handled communication skills as only one factor among various others which have been expected positively affecting child's desirable socialization. She explained that the difficulty of communication studies lay under the fact that every communication situation was the real mixture of cognitive and social factors concerning about the child development. Some useful discussions from all participants followed above comments. As a summary, we realized the importance of concretizing the aim and the situation of our communication studies in order to accumulate our various results.
We planned this symposium, after judging in the present conditions the scholastic abilities and personality of pupils today as being very negative. The aim of this symposium was to make clear our tasks of research about the development of human abilities and personality. Sakano, from the standpoint of neurological psychology, described the dynamic process of the higher cortical functions in man, especially the interactions of dominant conters of CNS and laterality of hands. And he indicated the importance of social determinants, for example, the contents of education in schools. Noro introduced the study and theory of structure of human abilities by J. Lomsscher and his followers. And he stressed that we must study human abilities in connection not only with learning, but with play and labour, too. Sakamoto, as a researcher of pedagogy, warned about the crisis of education and children in Japan. He insisted on the point that we must pay at tention to the inner world of children, and analyse the children's presentation such as composition, as the expression of the inner would of them. Finally he emphasized the necessity of cooperative study by pedagogists and psychologists. As a whole, this symposium confirmed that there are many problems left to be solved; for examples, a research on the structure of human abilities and personality respectively and their inter-relations, a research connected with the practice of education, etc.
The purpose of this symposium was to make clear that problems were pointed out in the various research methods on the psychology of adolescence. Seven approach methods were critically examined by the following reporters. S. Toda reported the results and problems of the interactional approaches by which a dialogue between parents and adolescents was studied. Merits and demerits of the statistical analysis of questionnaire deta concerning the dialogue between parents and adolescents were pointed out. He added that the dynamic and systematic methods combining report analysis, interview method and clinical method were very important in order to understand adolescents liveing in a concrete world. K. Sato distincted the three types of experimental studies of adolescence; the effects of political and economical conditions upon adolescence, the effects of counselling and educational guidance upon adolescents and the definitive and operational effects of various conditions upon adolescents by psycho-metric method. Metrics of the third type of experimental method were pointed because of its operational ability of subject behavior. He also added the necessity of questionnare and other ressarch method in order to cover the various problems of adolescents. M. Matsushita clarified the characteristics of the directive observational method as follows: (1) to understand adolescents in helping them to solute their urgent problem.(2) to guide adolescents from where the most adequate method, without the previously provided hypothesis, was always looked for.(3) to attain ultimately the nomothetic law to understand adolescents in a continuous study in a search for a unique law upon adolescents. Y. Gomi emphasized the necessity and importance of phenomenological approach to understand adolescent by the concrete analysis of adolescent's poems. He concluded that the essence of phenomenological approach should be the clarification of total entity adolescent as structural relations. He examined the relation of the problem and research method, the possibility of original research method for the psychology of adolescent and the nature of statistical approaches to grasp the structure of adolescents' life. He also pointed out that the statistical approach should be allocated as one of these various methods judged useful and appropriate for understanding adolescent. M. Fukutomi emphasized the importance of reconstruction of the framework to understand contemporary adolescents. He also proposed the necessity to have dialogic approach toward adolescent by which the new adequate fremework might be reconstructed from the standpointo f adolescentst hemselves. Y. Kasama reiterated the importanceo f longitudinalm ethod by which the dynamic processo f personalityf ormationa nd humand evelopmensth ouldo nlyb e clarified. He also proposedt hat the uniquer eseach methodf or psychologyo f adolescences houldn ot be necessary but that the new method for the study of human developmenst houldb e used in a better way. He also insistedt hat participatingo bservationala pproachess houldb e considered as the most useful and adequate for the study of human development. Considering thesep ropositionst,h e organizerw ouldl ike to wish that various reseachm ethodss hould be studied and that these should be integrated in the near future.
This symposiumw as to discusso n what proposala psychologiswt as able to give for making the programme for language teaching, and what a research language teacher was needed for to psychologists T. Takagi presented “On the programm of language leaching for pre-school children.” She emphasized 3 aims of language teaching: (1) To make children learn communicating ability.(2) To make them learn Decodinga bility.(3) To make them learn written language. J. Iwata presented“ On the structure of languaget eachingf rom a congnitivev iewpoint.” He emphasized4 dimension:s (1) To make them learn coding ability.(2) To make them learn to use language consciously.(3) To make them form inner speech.(4) To make them convert an inner speech from thinking into an audible speech. And he concludedt hat the teaching of using a languagec onsciouslys timulatedc ognitived evelopment of children. S. Kawahara reported on the practical problem in language teaching for infants. By her research on the actual conditions of language teaching, she organized her curriculum and activity programm. E. Ishidoya reported on “Practical problems in languaget eachingf or minda nd body handicappedc hildren. ”He pointedt hat as they had less functional words than normal children in languge acquisition, he made them a remedial teaching programme for functional words. After these presentations, N. Okamoto commented on: (1) What ability should we make children to acquire through language acquisition? (2) What study should be done on the loss and gain caused by language education
The symposium was on infanticide in our time from many sided view-points. The aim was to investigate the mechanism of the occurrence and preventive measure of infanticide. Infanticide in our time could be divided into seven types, that is, infanticide and a housing problem, infanticide and a sickly child, infanticide and a domestic discord, infanticide and a poor life, infanticide and an unmarried mother, infanticide and a handicapped child, and infanticide and an educational problem. Infanticide having connection with these causes were not raised by the person, but by the problem connected to that person. In conclusion, the prevention of infanticide must be a joint effort for a better social solidarity in troubles or sufferings, therefore we must strive to obtain cooperation and solidarity in regional communities
A part of the systematically designed researches on the above-mentioned topic which the writer had carried out for many years was reported. The findings of the first couple of studies on the development of transposition learning suggest that there are two levels of generalization; the first level is perceptual level (stimulus generalization) based on stimulus equivalence and the second is cognitive generalization (mediated generalization) based on mediation process which may be either verbal or non-verbal. To test the development of mediated generalization in preschool chilaren three- and five-year-olds were assigned five tasks including primary and transfer laming of size discrimination, graded in difficulty in terms of smaller difference ratio and increased number of irrelevant cues (1967). They consisted of 3 groups (16 in each); G1 was trained to choose “absolutely” the same size in either pair 1:3 or 3:5 randomly presented (the numeral referring to the step of size), G2 to choose “relatively” the smaller and G3 to choose also “relatively” the larger in each pair. The absolute choice was found more difficult than the relative choice in both age groups. Those who failed in the primary training were trained with the same stimulus pairs in terms of the classical transposition technique and those who succeeded in this went back to the primary training. The total failure in the primary training was only one case in the “absolute” choice group of the older, whereas the younger groups had more cases of failure. The above results were compared to those with white rats (G1 and G3) which were trained in the same way with the same size stimuli. There was no spontaneous sucess in primary training in the animals and no shaped success in the “absolute” choice group, whereas some in the “relative” choice group. As for transfer learning there were failures in four tasks among those spontaneous or shaped successes in the primary training. The results of the verbalization test indicate that those who succeeded in mediated generalization cannot necessarily verbalize the reasons of their choices especially among the younger children.
Since the opening of the history on treatment of cerebral palsy, it consisted almost exclusively on the role of leading the hand of the orthopaedic surgeon. We remember the great contribution by men like Little who gave his name to this condition, and recently Phelpes first endeavoured to help these children and greatly showed how much could be done for them. During the past 25 years we have seen new concepts and techniques of treatment having developed on neurophysiological basis. They are associated with names of such as Fay, Kabat, Knott, Brunstrom, Bobath, Rood, Bojta so on. During the last decade, a new stand point on treatment of motor difficulty by cerebral palsied called “psychological treatment” has been advocated, and proved its practical availability or remarkable improvement of motor difficulty. Under national support, clinical and experimental investigations are in proving daily with the co-operation of psychologists, physicians, physical therapists, and teachers in Japanese universities, schools and hospitals. The present paper is a brief introduction of theory and practice of the psychological treatment. The teacher discusses the following the essential characteristics of motor difficulty by cerebral palsied, psychological stand point of treatment, historical review of psychological treatment, nature and treatment of hypertension of muscles, analysis of postural distortion and postural tensions, psychological meaning of problems in motor actions, model patterns of motor actions, comparative consideration of motor-training and psychotherapy and the like.
These measures are divided roughly into two kinds; the projective measures and the selfreport measures. The former is reviewed in respect of the following three points: the materials, the subjects (age and sex), and the conceptual issues. The latter is reviewed in respect to the following three kinds of research: research on the need for achievement (n-Ach), on the resultant achivement motivation (RAM), and on the academic achievement motivation. The attention is especially given to the conceptual issues, the reliability and the validity of the measures. The results indicate the following problems.: 1) Conceptual issues: There are so many ways of referring to the achievement motivation, and several n-Ach indices do not measure the same thing and must not be used interchangeably 2) Reliabilities: The reliabilities of the self-report measures are relatively high, but the projective ones are not. 3) Validities: Generally speaking, the relation of n-Ach to gross performance measures is poorly correlated for both projective and the self-report measures. On the other hand, the relationships between n-Ach scores measured in the specific areas and the performances on the specific tasks are more satisfactory than the gross ones. 4) Factorial studies: There are few studies in the factor analytical approaches on the achievement motivation. Yet one study indicates that the situational factors are extrapolated from the projective measures while the self-report measures are not the case. Implications of the present study for future research are discussed accordingly.