Problems related to the teaching of Japanese syllabaries (Hiragana and Katakana) and characters (Kanji) in early childhood were presented in the symposium. Three main issues worth discussing seem to be 1)teaching methods appropriate to each developmental stage 2)individual differences in early childhood ; and 3) influences of the use of language in everyday life on the acquisition of Hiragana, Katakana and Kanji. It will be more meaningful to discuss these issues while keeping in mind the importance of psycho-physical development. Following were the main discussions: Considering early childhood language characteristics, we should have in mind that the acquisition of Japanese letter will be accelerated not by outside factors but by inner development of each child himself. We must consider the fact that almost all children before entrance into primary school either in rural or urb an areas acquired 46 `Hiragana simple tone' syllables, but there are no exact systematic leading plans or teaching techniques among educators and psychologists as yet. There must be an optimal period for learning Hiragana and it might be some time before the entrance into primary school. Children in their early age can be roughly classified into three groups: a) those who acquire most; b) the moderates who acquire about 20 letters out of 46 or 72; and c) the last group who acquire least. In the child learning process and its time-developmental sequence, exist the general phenomena of the so-called “stagnate phase” and “acute acquisition phase”.It might be thought that between these stages, there is another very critical stage: the awareness of the role of symbols or the attention to them. Among other problems discussed were: Hiragana being the best recognized letters, child's discriminating ability, mirror-writing, reading or writing word's direction (longitudinal way or lateral), teaching letters in group nursing etc Consequently, the total development of the child should be considered associated with the teaching of reading and writing.(Abstracted by T. Kobayashi)
This symposium was originally designed by the President of the Congress, Prof. Shigeo Takahashi, who himself is one of the most prominent Rorschach researchers in Japan. Three speakers were chosen in order to show their different approaches to the children's Rorschach technique. Michiko Iida presented her research on school phobia with the Rorschach method. According to their Rorschach responses, school phobia cases were divided into five groups. Children who showed rather rich results even though they were marked with neurotic tendencies were good at psychotherapeutic prognosis. Whereas those who showed constricted results were bad in their prognosis. Nobuko Ochi presented her longitudinal study of Rorschach with children. She gave the test to 16 subjects once a year for 11 years continuously. She found that, among other things, there was a dramatical change in the Rorschach responses when the children were in fifth grade of primary school, and the children is strong concern to “face” response when they were in middle school. Makiko Ozawa was supposed to present her research on the developmental change in the child Rorschach responses from a theoretical point of view. However, she could not attend to the symposium because of sudden illness Kenzo Sorai and Fujio Tanaka, as the discussants, greatly helped the discussion on methodological, clinical and developmental points of view.
The purpose of this symposium was to clarify some characteristics of therapeutic standpoints and methodologies for the behavioral handicapped children comprehended as an inclusive concept. Agari classified the mental retarded into equilibrium type, hyperactive type, and inhibitive type by using several measures in order to comprehend their behavior, and reported the results of therapeutic practice, which corresponded to the three types. Azuma saw the possibility of teaching the mental retarded by using the operant conditioning techniques. Ishii reported from his many years' experience that the important thing in the education including therapy and training for autistic children was to improve the human relationship between therapist and children. The authors concluded: the therapeutic approach to the behavior handicapped children was discussed among the members, but no integrated conclusion was reached. Perhaps there were among the members some, differences of views on handicapped children. Sufficient study should be given not only to the change of behavior but to the formation of the inner world of the handicapped children, and in the study we should consider a handicapped child as a whole person
The aim of this symposium was to make clear our problems about methodology of psychology of adolescence, and examine the general systematization among the methods taken up by four symposists T. Kuze stressed the significance of the questionnaire method, and clarified that the approach would be quite effective in order to see the behavioral traits of adolescents in general, while presenting some concrete data. K. Sato emphasized the necessity of the experimental method especially in order to see the causality in behavioral development of adolescents. He pointed out, however, that questionaires and other methods should be used at the same time. M. Kokugan spoke on the characteristics of directive observational method, and examined the possibility and the significance of understanding adolescents in helping them to solve their urgent and current problems T. Sorita explained the meaning and the necessity of phenomenological approach to understand the essential traits of behavior by using their notes and other data, and to understand the structure of adolescent personality in general. After these presentations, A. Terada emphasized that these approaches of methods had to be integrated and much systematized in the future, and commented on some concrete planning.
T. Takizawa There are dennotative structure (the relation of part & whole) and connotative structure (the relation of similarity & difference) in concept. The children can't coordinate the dennotation and connotation. Piaget maintains that negative operation (A) is important for concept formation in children. Young children are restricted with affirmative operation (A) and can't coordinate affirmative and negative operations. Piaget emphasizes that the affirmative and negative operation underlie on the understanding of the relation of super & subordinate categories. He also states that it's important for child's concept formation to have a conflict experiences between the affirmative and negative operations J. Iwata Iwata considers the role of language on the concept formation In early period, mother named objects to teach the child such as “This is a dog”, “That's a dog, too”. This naming stimulated the conceptualizing activity of children. Usually the concept is transmitted through sentences. For example, the concept of whole is transmitted through sentences like “whales are in the sea”, “whales are like fish” etc. The structure among concepts is also formed through sentences. When the child believes that the whale is a kind of fish, and is told that' a whale is a kind of mammal' they must assimilate the whale in the category of ‘mammal’. The considerations for concept formation through language is 1) to comprehend the level of child's concept. 2) to pay attention not to fall into verbalism. 3) to consider the methods to reconstruct more scientific concept. Then, it is thought it's available to make use of cognitive conflict K. Nakura Why does a human being have a disposition to conceptualize the world? First, he thinks a man has autogenetic and spontaneous disposition to abstract something in common from the world. Such a conceptualization is made through need, activity and attitude. Second, mother names the objects for her children, It is a social and educational aspect. There is a temporal conflict.a nd contradiction between the spontaneous and social conceptualization. It appears on the phenomenon of word generalization in early childhood. In case of the autistic children, they are deficient in their social and emotional factors. So, though they have their autogenetic concepts, they can't reconstruct it into our conceptual system. It is thought to be an important first step for them to establish the object-relation as libido-object. Through its relation, their concepts gradually become social and formative.
This symposium was to present and discuss current studies in developmental psycholinguistics in Japan. The organizer first gave a review of the Japanese psychological studies in language development and pointed out several problems for further research. After illustrating his viewpoint affected by Chomsky's, Iwatate discussed Chomsky's adequacies, the 4 generative grammars with reference to one Japanese boy's utterances, and concluded that his psycho-process grammar is the most adequate so far as the present analysis is concerned. In the psycho-process grammar, the plural strata developing independently are supposed, and the combination of the restrictions of each stratum determines whether it is possible or not to generate a specific utterance. Watamaki classified a speech into functional categories: naming, vocative, performative, descriptive, and so on. Illustrating the developmental process from one-word to combinational sentences, he found as follows: (1) Similar non-linguistic contexts and child's activities evoke speech with particular semantic function.(2) In the course of establishment of speech habit and repetition of speech, the form of expression was evolved. He asserted that this establishment of speech habit was and essential prerequisite for emergence of combinational speech. Tanaka dealt with the development of the simple-sentence structure in Japaness children. The hypothesis was that the development could be described, other things being equal, in terms of the sentence length (the number of phrases within a sentence) and the valence of the predicate verb. This was verified by three experiments Haga commented on the recent increase of studies based on generative semantics or case grammar and emphasized the importance of approach to language acquisition dealing with the field common to psychology and linguistics from a psychological viewpoint Some useful ideas from the participants followed the speeches It is expected that this symposium would give further impetus to researches in Japanese.
Hidano: “Highschool-University Life and Entrance Examination” Entrance examination system can be examined from the viewpoints of applicants, universities and highschools. He examined it mainly from the former two points. Tatsuno: “On the methods of selecting applicants” He explained the selecting methods of Tsukuba University, which selects applicants by the examinations in the academic subjects and the recommendation of highschools. He mentioned the aims and methods of the recommendatioon system, and also referred, as educational psychological problems, to the validity and reliability of the system and the applicants' achievement after their entrance to university. Finally he referred to the “short thesis” and the interview test and explained their aims, significance and objectivity Hara: “The principle and present situation of the selection of the applicants” He referred to 1) the kinds of selecting methods and their background and 2) the standard of evaluating the selecting methods, and explained the entrance examination system of International Christian University. He emphasized the necessity of the educatinal psychological approach to education in universities, while mentioning the problems raised by giving the entrance examination. After the reports of three symposists, the methods of selecting applicants became the topic of a talk, and then three points 1) the recommendation system, 2) “Kyotsu-ichiji-test” (the test on academic subjects given to all university applicants) 3) the relationship between “Kyotsu-ichiji” and “Niji-test” (the test given by each university) were discussed: 1) The validity, reliability and objectivity of the recommendation system were discussed and it was admitted that these points require further examination. 2) Merits and demerits of “Kyotsu-ichiji” were examined, and it was suggested that they should be evaluated by the follow-up study of the “No-ken” (the test of the academic subjects given by the Ministry of Education) and the “Shin-teki” (the aptitude test of further education). 3) As a final judgement on “Kyotsu-ichiji” had not been obtained, “Niji-test” was dealt with differently from university to university. Therefore, its evaluation and the combination of the two tests should be examined by the committee of entrance examination by each university, and by exchange of results.
I. The aim of our action researches is to assist each of the handicapped to transfer from his behavioral disturbed states to better organized behavioral states. II. Outline of our assumption system which would support our action researches is as follows: (a) An organism is doomed to be always exposed to more or less critical situations which will disturb his bio-activities.(b) When the organism still survive through crises, some type of operational process as to transformation (analysis-generalization-abstractionsubstitution) on all signs received at that moment is activated and induces to transform behavioral organization, by which the regulation grade of bio-activities would be more or less raised.(c) Some being would be able to assist the survival of the other organism in more fatal disturbed state by procedures to let him reform the optimal type of the above mentioned operational process as to transformation of signs. III. Among phase characteristics contained in activities of sign systems, the followings are of importance to our action researches: (a) Difference on location of sign sources (inner or outer the concerned organism),(b) on the following of signs (sending of or receiving of signs),(c) on the main functional parts of body used in sending or receiving,(d) on the genesis of sign systems (aboriginal or constructive),(e) on principles of construction in constructive sign systems (see Tab. 1 in text). IV. Differentiation between behavioral organizations and differentiation between units of sign lumps are both enhanced, when each group is treated as a set and training to form the mapping relation between the two sets is designed and executed. V. The methodologies stated in the above II, III, IV are applied to the education for the deaf-blind and other types of the handicapped, and fairly good results are obtained.
The purposeo f the presents tudy is to preparea pool of vocabularyi temsw hichc an be used for measuringb road range of ability and construct a scale for word meaningc omprehension. After preliminary testing and item analysis, 11 forms of vocabulary tests appropriate to first grade through graduate school have been built and administered. Applying the latent trait model, item characteristic parameters were estimated in each test. Making use of the common items contained in each set of adjucent level tests, scale values of latent trait in differentt ests were equated. Thus, difficultya nd discriminatingp ower of all items in 11 tests werec harcterizedo n the commons cale. Scoreso f subjectsw ere estimatedb y the maximuml ikelihoodm ethod. Precisiono f estimateso f each test is evaluated,a t all levels of ability, in terms of informationf unction A stratified adaptive test of verbal ability has been built by use of this item pool. Administrationos f the test and an additionalq uestionaireo n the test indicatet hat the test is appropriate for from 6th graders through graduate students. An ability score of each subject was estimatedb y the maximuml ikelihoodm ethod. An informationc urvef or the set of items respondedb y each subjects hows that appropriatei temsa re selectedf or the subject. Amounto f informationi s peakeda t the neighborhoodo f the estimatedl evelo f the students' ability. All these results demonstrate that this stratified adaptive test can be used, practically, f or measuringb road range of verbal ability.
A large number of actual colleges and universities in Japan were raised to the status of university from former higher professional schools in 1948. Under anomie of the post World War II period, the selection method which had so far depended simply upon an achievement test was changed into a three-item form: an achievement test, a Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the high school records. The Scholastic Aptitude Test was gradually dropped and the selection method was minimized to an achievement test alone in 1955, and since then it has been carried on. Colleges and universities increased distinctly in number, while excellent applicants concentrated on a small number of wellknown and distinguished universities. Thus it is difficult for examinees to succeed in the examination even if they have studied at a preparatory school for another chance to be enrolled even after they left high school. Items of achievement tests of entrance exams have become too difficult for students under regular curriculum in ordinary high schools. On this account, high schools demanded that colleges adopt SAT and/or high school records again to enable as many fresh high school graduates as possible to be enrolled in colleges. But the proposal was dropped together. A marked tendency was seen lately: many high school students devote themselves to their study for exams and the education of the whole person (human qualities, or humanity) in high school is neglected. And then it was decided to make an attempt to carry on a new method at national and public colleges from 1979. This method is also notwithstanding an achievement test. I would say, things are not much different from what they used to be because both fresh graduates and students who failed the entrance exams and have been obliged to try again take together the same exam. Educational and psychological problems caused by intense preparation for an entrance exam oblige students, for example, to neglect the promotion of their health and their human development. Thereupon, a matriculation should not rely exclusively on an achievement test, but thoroughly run a follow-up survey on students and carry on a research study on how to select what type of students with due regard to the S.A. Test including their various achievements and evaluation of their whole person alities in high school.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the educational and psychological problems on the entrance examinations to high schools in Japan. The contents of the discussion on the above theme are as follows: 1. The problems on the articulation from junior high schools to high schools 2. The relations of the entrance examination to the educational evaluations Considering the above problems, we search for a system on the entrance examinations to high schools in Japan. The junior high school is usually followed by the high school. Therefore, the entrance examination to high school is different from a “selective” ex amination. The methods to do it too must be different from the methods of the “selective” examination. The present writer has planned this study in order to make clear the system on the entrance examination to high school and raise a question, hoping that this kind of study will go progressing.