Summary Report S. Nagano T. Tanaka reviewed the general trend of developmental research in Japan, pointing out the insufficiency of application of methodology and theories of conslusion-oriental studies to educational problems, and stressed the need of field research on educational prosess. K. Miyake reviewed his own researches in socialogation pointing out that in spite of apparent prosperity of developmented psychology, there were few studies aiming atviromentin the real life. He emphasaized the need of introduction of historical analysis to the developmental research, and importance of study of children's cognition of their parents together with parent's cognition of their children. It was also proposed that a more activeattitude on expressing opinions on educational problems K. Yamaguchi emphasized the resent changs in the definition of “mental retardation”-from the older definition requiring a prediction of adult behavior, and proposed an approach to the development of the mentally detarded children, which emphasized the teachinglearning processes. G. Hatano discussed the general problems in developmental research, and stressed that a developmental process, which may be distinguished from “learning” and take place as a result of insteraction of lectu between child and others in the real life, should be studied not after laboratory experience but after ecological approach. He also emphasized the need for contribution of Japanese psychologists to developmental psychology in the world through,a research on the development of Japanese children.
Recently researchers on the teaching-learning processes have improved in the field of educational psychology. The main aim of this symposium is to recomend the direction of future studies, considering made researches on the teaching learning processes in the past 20 years activities of the Japanese Association of ducational Psychology. Nishinosono reviewed the trends of studies, according to the results of analysis by computer appearing in the Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology and at the Annual Conventions of Educational Psychology ; and he found out that recently the characteristics of the researches on teaching learning processes were just reading foreign references ; to identify the study themes, to plan strict experimental designs, to select preschool children and university students, to analyze the data by inductive statistics, to derive conclusions from results, and to papers, had made the psychological researches for solving educational problems in Japan 20 years ago. He concluded that the important things were to conduct the studies for solving educational problems in Japan and then to gather and retrieve a variety of informations on case studies in order to find out techniques for teaching technologies. Four speakers presented their own papers, as an answer to Nishinosono's problems. Namiki described the necessity of ATI studies to get instructional prescription adaptive to individual differences of learnings in teaching learning processes. Takeshita emphasized the importance of studies on teachers' behaviors and their orientation in the framework of research factors. orientation in the framework of research factors. Kimura described the present state of CAI studies from both sides of hardware and software, andintroduced a technological development on the automatic generation of educational materials by computer. Okada asked the researchers to develop a simplified research methodology for teachers, to show the limitation of new teaching methods at their application and to make clear effectiveness of each component of teaching behaviors The discussion was mainly concerned with the relationship between science and technology on teaching learning processes. To ccumulate datas on the teaching technologies in teaching learning processes in Japan, came as a conclusion, in reference to scientific observations, to help the use of such informations in instructional practices and gain new scientific knowledges throgh feedback from such processes
The purpose of this symposium was to review the trend of personality studies and clinical studies in Japan during the period from 1957 to 1977, and to clarify their characteristics. Takuma: The ratio of personality studies among all papersread in annual meetings of the Japanese Association of Educational Psychology has beengetting smaller since the second half of 1960. In the field concerned more studies were done on the development of personality of child and dolescent. Hoshino: It can be said that the period between 1962 and 1967 was a “clinical boom” in the psychological studies, including the original papers and brief reports appearing in “The Journal of Educational Psychology” and the papers read at each annual meeting of the Japanese Association of Educational Psychology during the same period as compared with the period preceeding it. The clinical studies include studies of feeble-minded children, mental disorders, juvenile delinquents and so on, by means of questionnaires, non-verbal tests, especially projective techniques such as Rorschach, TAT, Picture-Frustration Studies and others as well as studies on counseling and psychotherapy. These trends, however, turned into somewhat fewer clinical studies during the eriodfrom 1968 to 1973 probably due to the radical social movement on university campuses and clinical settings. After 1972 it was very rare to find a pure original clinical study in the journal, and the more papers were read at the annual meeting of J.A.E.P. about school-phobia, child-autism, psychotherapy the less papers on testings (including projective techniques) became. Sugiyama: Many studies on the psychological function and pathology of anxiety from the experimental and clinico-educational standpoints have been developed during the past twenty years in Japan.Various anxiety scales have been standardized for Japanese and agreat deal of clinical research has also been carried out in order to reduce anxiety. Kikuchi: After several value studies in educational psychology, mainly those of discussants. were reviewed, and some necessary researches were suggested: i.e. studies on value changes, examination on value concepts in personality theory and studies of emic values. Uchisugawa: There are few educational and psychological articles concerned with speech handicapped children except stuttering and communication disorders due to feeble-minded ness. During the following ten years (1968-78), the variety and frequency of articles have increased year by year. However, in respect to the content of articles showing the up-to-date researches, the following two features have been closed up: the speech behavior of autistic children and the speech modification of the heavy feeble-minded from the viewpoint of operant conditioning. Ito: For Japanese psychologists the expectation of the personality-researchers in foreign countries is not the follow-up studies of western psychological theories, but just our Japanese researchers' original studies based on the eastern psychology, I believe.Japanese psycholo gists should consider this point, and get to work on Japanese theory,of personality from the viewpoint of Buddhism thoughts.
The subject of this symposium was to review critically the recent trend of our Japanese studies on human relations in school and family setting First, it was pointed that in Japan there had been many prominent studies on classroom dynamics since World War II, stimulated by Lewinian studies on social climate and the trend of emocratization of Japanese society. But it was pointed out that the impact of these studies on educational problems have been negligible because of the discrepancy between the practical educational concerns and eseraches. Second, it was discussed that most studies on parent-child relationship failed to conceive parent-child relationship as a reciprocal process necessitating a methodological re-examination for researchers. Here are some another points. (1) Both school and family settings have to be taken as a part of a particular society and the character or dynamic process of the teacher-pupil, pupil-pupil interaction relation have to be integrally related to various aspects of society 2) Researchers must thoroughly study the actual social problems such as the increase of cases of suicide of young children and the prejudice to handicapped children both particular to the present educational environment
It has always been mentioned that educational psychology had almost no relation to educational practice. Not so many educational psychologists in Japan have become to be concerned with learning on educational events in the classroom. However, few Japanese educational psychologists have sufficient interest in educational practice In this symposium, the cause of educational psychologists' luck of interest on educational events and the way educational psychologists would have interests on educational practice was discussed. Three discussants who were teachers of primary and middle school in Japan, claimed that educational psychology studied at the university, was almost useless when teaching ordinary subjects in the classroom. They also mentioned that they could effectively teach pupils subjects in the classroom without any knowledge of educational psychology. It was suggested that these results were due to the following points: almost all educational psychologists seem to know little of the actual circumstances of educational practice. Therefore, they have not investigated some actual problems of educational events in a school setting. For example, learning disability, interaction between instruction and development, psychological analysis of instruction, instructional method of some concrete subjects, and so on. These problems have to be solved in a near future. So it is necessary that educational psychologists investigate concrete problems of educational practice with teachers. It was also suggested that the psychologists should promote professional investigators majoring in the instructional psychology of certain subjects. In any case, it is not sufficient for educational psychologists to study only extremly special problems in the laboratory, and apply only psychological principles to educational practices. Psychologists too have to go to school and observe what is happening in the lassroom.
At present, in special schools and classes, the number of handicapped children, who are deemed to be of more serious or complicated status than ever, is remarkably increasing. Consequently, the instruction that had been applied so far on this sort of pupils based upon only stale educational psychology now seems to turn out as of less effect. And it is quite natural that instructors, requesting the participation of researchers to practical projects, are quite heard recently. 1. On cooperationbetween instructors and researchers (a) Researchers should select problems appliable to handicapped children to facilitate their improvement.-T. Nishiyama (Mihara Special School for Mentally Retarded Children)(b) Researchers should work together with instructors on instructional projects. -T. Nishiyama (c) Keeping up their specialities, both instructors and researchers should tie up with each other. -E. Watanabe (National Kuriharna School for Handicapped Children), I. Kawai (Oita University)(d) Instructors should always work in contact with researchers. -O. Irieda (Hokkaido University of Education) 2. On case study (a) In order to enhanBce the results of treatment in scientific aspect, positive cooperation of researchers is essential. -0. Miyawaki (Education Center of Gifu Prefecture)(b) Case study is the most important project in research methods of educational psychology, especially for special education. -K. Sugai (Tohoku UniVersity), E. Murakami (Nagoya University), S. Takahashi (Kobe Women's University)
All three speakers of elementary and secondary schools held a common view that educational psychology had made little contribution to school education. They also cornplainted that school counseling was not authorized to occupy a legitimate place in a school system and educational curriculum. Most of the teachers have been charged with one or more roles or duties in pupils' guidance and teaching. Three teachers emphasized that there were no clear differences between the various charges home-room teachers, vocational guidance teachers, school counselors, or pupil guidance teachers should take in guidance or counseling. Actually class-room teachers take almost all charges of pupil guidance in secondary schools. So counselors sometimes have little chance, if any, to apply there skill in guiding or counseling students. Speakers on the proposal side hoped for a training course for teachers in universities or teacher's college where counseling psychology or guidance' in general shouls be taught as a compulsory subject, and have students do field work and practical exercises in guidance and counseling. Speakers on the replying side a greed to teacher's proposals that educational psychology had not played an important role in school education. One of the reasons was that most of the educational psychologists were apt to do researches only, and set much value upon impractical work in scholar settings. Scholar speakers stressed a deep connection between pure and practical researches. They also spoke of a school counselor system that should be legal ; full-time school counselors should take care of pupils guidance or counseling of which at present class-room teachers take charge for the most part. Guidance teachers (usually an additional post) or educational counseling teachers (usually an additional post) were said to be partially responsible for pupil guidance and counseling. Scholar speakers said that school counselors had too much used therapeutic techniques in school counseling. Speakers on the replying side advised that school counseling should be more preventive and developmental than counseling for adults. They also agreed with teacher's proposals that the training course for teacher must provide students with counseling or pupil guidance as a compulsory subject, together with practical exercises and supervised training for guidance and counseling