Introduction-from a field of music education-by Umemoto First, the relative weight of environment and he-redity as variables on the formation of sentiments was assessed in order to estimate the possibility and range of sentiment education. In music education, for instance, there are evidences indicating that development of sense for harmony are very much influenced by environment, while sense to rhythm shows high heritability. Second, the purpose of sentiment education was discussed from a Psychological viewpoint. A person who is sensitive to the beauty of music and paintings is usually keen to sentiment education because such a personality has deep insight of the world. Sentiment education and the psychology of ‘calligraphy’ by Tsushima Tsushima summarized the history of education of calligraphy in Japan, and criticized the Japanese education which has been treating calligraphy as a teaching technique of copying. He stressed the meaning of the art of calligraphy as personality formation and how it had been esteemed in the history of arts in China and Japan. Concerning the education of moral and religion by Jinbo Jinbo reviewed the present status of religious attitude of Japanese children, and mentioned the recent trend which showed slight move from indifference to positive attitude toward religion. Several characteristics of Japanese children concerning religious phenomena were also discussed. Concerning early education by Nagura Nagura stressed that tha education for sentiment and feeling in early education should not be incompatible with the education for cognition. It should be organized from a standpoint of personality development or humanity formation. From observations of classroom-teaching in art by Inagaki Inagaki, based on the materials gathered by the teachers in primary schools in Tokyo, summarized the three year development of children's paintings through teachers' guidance. Especially stressed was the fact that the education of art contained important clues to assess the quality of classroom teaching. Sentiments from a standpoint of cognitive psychology by Hatano Hatano explained the concept of schema and its usefulness in interpretation of sentiment education. He argued that there were many local and meta-schema in sentiment education, which were not necessarily treated as idiographic processes. Discussion were made especially on the use and misuse of sentiment education, and its compatibility with cognitive education.
The purpose of this symposium was to explore, via discussing the problems of children's Tsumazuki, new possibilities of relating educational psychological researches to instructional practices. The “Tsumazuki” in Japanese (abbreviated as Tsu) literally means stumbling, but it is used to mean a wide variety of children's failures, from failure in an arithmetic computation up to failure in school life, and even in one's whole life. Saheki presented a paper titled:“Tsumazuki; its causes and countermeasures-a cognitive psychological onsideration”. He classified Tsu into three categories; 1.Tsu in behavior, 2.Tsu in understanding, and 3.Tsu in inability to make Tsu; according to him, the third is the most serious. Causes of Tsu should be analyzed in correspondence with its two distinct yet interrelated phases: knowledge representation and knowledge generation. in relation to the latter, hestressed the need to study the formative process of the sense that a particular knowldge is real. The sense of reality is generated by an active schema, varying one's perspectives through vigorous activities, rather than by a passive schema locating things in one's already established frame of reference. Also he stressed the necessity of encouraging the wholistic active schema in educational psychological researches. Komabayashi's presentation was titled: The relationship between how an instruction is and how Tsumazuki is grasped-should studies of Tsumazuki be limited to those of errors? He pointed out that the Tsu in instruction is usually interpreted as children's errors, negatively valued. However, he contended,Tsu has two meanings; the negative one of failure in development and the positive one of initiation in development, of which he stressed the latter's importance. He proposed, introducing John Holt's views, that the educational psychologists should study children's errors, while cooperating with practicing teachers in developing new teaching materials. Takahashi's paper on “Pedagogy of Tsumazuki” presented two examples of his research on Tsu. In art education, he showed how, by introducing children to the task of self-portraits and techniques of professional artists, he succeeded in helping children overcome their lack of interest together with thir grogress in drawing. Eventually they beganto concentrate, for hours, on drawing in order to produce lively seriies of self-portraits. In physical education, he enabled almost all 40 children in a class to succeed in a horizontal bar item, while initially only 15 were successful. His pedagogy was to attempt whatever was necessary, possible and promising. He regarded Tsu in children as that of teachers, which in turn is that of teachers' teachers, i. e. universities. Takeuchi elaborated his points:“A start from Tsumazuki”,giving a few examples taken from his own clinical experiences. One of the cases was his own experience of hearing and speaking a difficulty in his own childhood. Having been forced and traned, by a well-intended teacher, to speak just as a normal speaker would, he, a boy with hearing difficulty, began to lose his lively speech and eventually lost his entire speech. He pointed out that the more well-intended a teacher is to teach children forcibly to behave as she herself does, the more in danger she may be in causing children the fatal Tsu, i. e.Tsu as an active subject. He also pointed out that the socially successful people are oftentimes those who cannot make a Tsu, who aer too good at guessing other people's intentions so much as to adapt oneself to the way expected by others and against the way one really wishes.
The term “human nature” should, according to the symposium organizer, imply both its positive side or humanitarian love, and negative side or aggression-destructive tendency, cruelty, and jealousy, etc. By recognizing human nature as such, we shall be able to have deeper insight and better understanding both on ourselves and other people. In the twentieth century, after the two World Wars, human nature has been discussed from the viewpoint of “war and peace”,but it should be discussed now in relation to the great development of technology as well as the social systems and its structures. The first speaker, M. Tatara mentioned from the point of view of psychoanalysis the malformation and recovery of human nature. He mainly stressed on Erikson's point of view, but pointed out the fact that the recovery also depended on social situations to some extents. The second speaker M. Murayama, a Rogerian introduced the characteristics of C. Rogers' point of view on human nature. The third speaker H. Kawai, a Jungian, grasped human nature with two opposite poles-logos and pathos-and at present he thinks that human nature should be broadly considered in relation to the highly developed technology. He believes that to understand human nature as a whole it should be based not only on organized logical approach, but also on phenomenological one faithful to facts. The fourth speaker, a Skinnerian, M. Tamaki introduced B. F. Skinner's theory on human nature. As Skinner's opinion was thorough going and stimulating though simple in a way, his talk aroused discussions in a heated atmosphere. The fifth speaker, K. Mizushima connected the above four speakers' talks rather systematically in relation to his own 200 clinical caces. The invited discussant, K. Ogino, a psychiatrist, put much emphasis on the importance of the unreasonable quality of human nature, and he was against Skinner. A question was asked by the audience on the relationship between dependence and Amae, and M. Tatara and H. Kawai were requested to answer. They answered that dependence and Amae had not exactly the same meaning, and in relation to this point, the difference between the concepts of ego in the West and Japan should be considered. Both felt further medication was necessary before well-matured answer could be given.
Various discussions regarding definitions and usages of the term learning disabilities have appeared in Japanese academic circle. Although Japanese culture is quite different from Occidental ones, learning disabilities do exist in Japan and treatments are required. Japanese pediatricians and child neurologists are now turning their attentions to this subject. Primary, psychologists and educators should be responsible for diagnoses and remadiations of children with learning disabilities. And already in U. S., these matters are institutionalized in educational systems. In Japan, however, children learning disability is left inbetween the normal classroom and the special education classroom. Considerations for these children being urgent, it is essential to take up these problems in Japanese psychological field. Also, researches in systematic treatments of learning disabilities are called for in schools.
In this symposium, the propositions and arguments were discussed on the three axes as follows: (1) The evaluation of modern science: The first view point was that the methods of abstruction and conceptualization in the modern science, repressed some people who dropped out of those methods. The second was that the formation of synthetic science will correct those defects and solve the final problems. (2) The discriminatory social structure: We should emphasize the awareness of the discriminatory social structure;for example, adultinfant, the not-handicapped-the handicapped, man-woman, majority-minority. (3) The relations between researchers or professionals and real society: The first argument criticized the situation that the modern science had changed into religion, and that the expectation to professionals' work had been enlarged. The another one pointed out that the professionals could not meet the expectation because of the low level of modern science; therefore, we should make efforts to bring science up to a higher level.
Recently a few researchers on the educational psychology have used the computer in their works, but it seems to the organizer and the coordinator that the phase of computer utilization is limited. This symposium had four aims. The first one was to review the trend of studies using the computer or studies of the computer system for education. The second was to suggest the extent of the phase and to recommend the direction of future studies on computer use in higher and advanced degrees. The third was to recognize the impact on the educational psychology from the computer science point of view. And the last was to estimate the expected impact on the computer science in educational psychology. Ishiketa gave an example of the identification of educational evaluation function using computer and emphasized “the mirror effect of computer” in the field of computer assisted by teacher's reconsideration. Gotoh and Nagano described the necessity of computer managed instruction (CMI) and the introduction of database techniques; furthemore, he concluded that both a data oriented approach and a model oriented approach were needed for the researchers in this field. Nojima and Okamoto suggested that the computer assisted instruction (CAI) system was to be devised as an inormation retrieval machine, and was to be one of the tools for analysis of thinking processes. After the four speakers presented their own opinions, the three discussants commented on their opinions. Sugai asked how the gap between the research of educational psychology and that of educational technology could be filled. Shibawaka questioned the aim of this problem (the subject of this symposium) and wondered why we had to take it. Ishihara emphasized the necessity of the assessment of a computerrized educational research from the viewpoint of the history of the computer.(Reporter: T. Ishiketa)
The purposes of a school counseling have been guidance and psychotherapy, but research added a new function, that is education. The aim of this symposium was to clarify this new function in school education. It is believed that the principles of counseling such as resepect to human potentiality, self observation, self exploration, self realization, self insight, and the changes of attitude and personality together with the change of behaviors will becomer the new purposes of school education. The principles and methods attached to those new aims were studied in this symposium. The ways to apply the principles of counseling to teaching methods and to effective study were also discussed in this symposium. The student learning activities to which the principles of group and behavioral counseling were also discussed in this symposium. The participants expressed their opinions and made questions to the proposers. The number of participants was about fifty.
This study consisted of a sister and a brother who were rescued from parents' maltreatment in 1972 at the age of 6 and 5 respectively. They both were 82 cm in height and 8.5 kg in weight, and could not walk but crawled. As for speech, the sister uttered only two words and the brother none. They were observed, mentally and physically, as if they were in the developmental level of a year and half at best. As a result of investigation it was considered that this severe case of developmental retardation was due to the complex factors of deprivation such as maternal, cultural, language, and nutritional. The characteristics of this developmental retardation case were as folllows: 1) The sister and the brother had a close contact with the other siblings but almost no interaction with adults. 2) No attachments to adults were found. 3) Genetic and organic loads were not considered to be the main cause of retardation. 4) Negative elements which had hindered the development of sensory-motor intelligence were not dominant. Since the children were rescued and taken to the protective nursery school, our projective team had been investigating the remedial proceses of the children's development by periodical testing and measurement in terms of physical, cognitive, language, and socioemotional development in comparison with the control group children of the same nursery school. Remedial education and follow-up study have been done for hae sake of the children's recovery by the analysis of testing results and inferences baseds on the information from antecedent researches. At this moment the findings might be temporarily summarized as follows: 1)As for Physical development, a high level of plasticity is preserved, and it is recognized that gradual overtaking of the standard of normal development is confirmed. 2)As for social development, interpersonal relations and their affective interaction are now smooth. Generally, a proper development has been confirmed although there is still immature and asocial tendency in the boy's behavior patterns. 3)As for emotional development, a weak self assertion, defensiveness, and dependency are the children's characteristics. These features might have stemmed from the overprotective treatment at the nursery school itself. 4)As for language development, there is a constant delay of 3-3.5 years in comparison with chronological age in PLA of ITPA. It seems that it is impossible for them to overtake the chronological standard. The main difficulties are found in what is called internal language or domain of formal language. 5)As for cognitive development, at one time IQ was restored to the level of 80-90, but after that, a constant decrease has been observed. This is mainly because the task of intelligence test requires more verbal and abstract abilities for problem solving according to chronological development. A low capacity in STM is observed but task of SPM is well performed, and social competence is considered to be better than expected. as for their daily life it seems there is no problem. After summarizing the above findings the following hypotheses might be proposed: Hypothesis I: Maturation function has a considerably high plasticity and a self control function per se. A complete lack of proper input to the organism to stimulate the maturation processes may cause a stagnation in the development. but the potentiality of the development may be preserved in the state of functional hibernation. If this is true, a developmental retardation caused by lack of input from the environment, and a deviated development caused by improper input should be clearly diferentiated.