The purpose of this symposium was to clarify how the term, “language retardation”,was understood in various fields, such as psychology, medicine, psycholinguistics and speech pathology, and how the “language-retarded children” were treated in their fields, respectively. Through discussions, manysided characteristics of the language-retarded children were emphasized some suggestions for understanding development of cognition and languagewere made. J. Murat a psychologist, pointed out that the term,“language retardation”, was differently used by each researcher relevant to the subject, and that a clear definition of it was needed to obtain a comon framework while discussing these problems. He argued that it was necessary to invent an effective normative scale for language development. He also emphasized that the formation of symbolic function was important for language development and that speech therapy was needed to understand the development of the whole personality. J. Shionaga, a medical clinician, indicated J. Shionaga, a medical clinician, indicated that from the practical standpoint, it was more productive to analyze each symptom of cases in details and to seek concrete methods for treatment than to stick to the formal diagnoses and classifications. She also emphasized the importance of an early examination and training, and she presented some examples: motor learning of sucking movements in early infants of cerebral palsy, auditory brain stem responses, and some drug treatments. According to H. Hayashibe, there were few researches on language retardation on a psycholinguistic approach. On the base of his analysis of language development in hearingimpaired children, he suggested that language development would be genrally equivalent to acquirement of rules, and that the process of this acquirement be a kind of “hypothesis-correction process”. He pointed out that the education and treatment on language-retarded children should be performed, in consideration with the characteristics of this process. T. Kodera, speech pathologist, insisted that learning on the formation of symbolic functions, considering the signreferent relationship, was more critical than paired-association learning actually prevailingly in speech therapy. She indicated that at the present it should be more practical and productive to classify language retardation in relation to the concrete treatments or to the settings of the training goals for each case than in relation to the etiology. S. NaKajima, as a discussant, pointed out that through the presentations of these four speeches a common characteristic of language development could be found; the language development should be closely related to the development of other aspects, such as cognitive process and interpersonal relationship. And he pointed out that we should not only take into account the development of phonation, articulation and auditory mechanism, but also the emotional relationship to parents, togetler with its cognitive process. Furthermore, the follow Furthermore, the following problems were discussed: (1)the significance of drug treatments in understanding mechanisms of autistic and hyperactive disposition as well as of minimal brain dysfunction,(2)the influence of the early training which uses sucking movements in cerebral palsied infants on the development of personal relationship and cognitive processes,(3)the limitation of paired association learning in language training,(4)the characteristics of the barrier to syntactic operations in hearing-impaired children. Finally, some comments were made on the necessary conditions for a clear definition of the term,“language retardation”.
This was the first formal symposium on ethical issues in psychological research in Japan. Ethical issues in research usually consist of (1) treatment of human subjects or participants,(2) professional ethics, and (3) responsibility of science to society. The present symposium dealt mainly with the first issue, but certainly in connection with the other two. It was as early as 1899 that Kutsumi wrote in a Japanese child study journal a research on treatment of young human subjects. Though touched occasionally by some researchers, it was only in the 70's that the ethical issues in conducting psychological research began to be discussed more systematically. Shimizu and Shimizu (1972) stressed the importance of researcher's adequate consideration of the research method from a humanitarian and educational point of view. Stimulated by the ethical standards for research with children proposed by the Society for Research in Child Development (US). Kojima (1975) questioned the adequacy of reliance on one-way consideration by the researcher, and proposed the need for respect of the subjects' human rights. He argued that the perfunctory “informed consent” by the subjects is not enough, and that true communication between the researcher and the subjects as to the research purposes, procedures, and its implications for our life was the basic prerequisite for consent by both sides. In the present symposium, Shimizu, a developmental psychologist, discussed the consideration by the researcher's view and the ethical standards of conduct for researcher's view. He enumerated the difficulties encountered by both views. Though he was not prepared to pursue the enforcement of the ethical standards, he proposed the means to make the reseacher's consideration more adequate; e. g., further discussions on the basic principles of ethics, and mutual criticism of the research methods among researchers. Tomiyasu, a behavior analyst for the severely mentally retarded, introduced and discussed the current debates about ethical problems in behavior analysis technique in America. Above all he maintained that a “leading theory” or a “developmental theory”, in order to choose the right objectives and procedures of training, was badly needed. Haraoka, social psychologist, pointed out the ethically problematic researcher's attitudes and research methods in the field. He discussed the difficulty of solving the dilemma of scientific research purposes and concern for the subjects' humanity. One of the audience criticized that the standpoint of the three speakers gave priority for research over the subjects' human life. Further he argued that the discussion of ethical issues should begin with an analysis of the current states of the psychological associations in Japan. This was the first step for further discussions on the ethical issues in psychological research in Japan. No one positively agreed on the enforcement of the ethical standards. Instead further discussions among psychologists, togetler with scientists in other fields, with teachers, parents, and children were recommended in order to make the researcher more sensitive to the complex aspects of the ethical issues.(H. Kojima)
“The usefulness and applications of Bayesian statistics for educational data analysis” Hiroshi watanabe, National Center for University Entrance Examination. “On the statistical predictions for educational and psychological research” Hirotada Hirose, Tokyo Woman's Christian University. “Pass analysis and its extention” Tomoichi Ishizuka. Railway Labour Science Research Institute. “Factor analysis of qualitative data” Haruo Yanai, Chiba University. “Selection of Variables in multivariate data analysis”
Though Piagetian theory dominated reserch on cognitive development in 1960s and early 70s, many investigators in the field have recently moved away from Piaget toward cognitive science. Does this trend mean that we have already exploited his contributions? Or, did we fail to incorporate many of his potentially fruitful ideas? Nakagaki, as the first speaker of the symposium, claimed that Piaget's greatest contribution to psychology was provision of a paradigm. It includes the following three basic assumptions:1) cognitive function is a sector of biological adaptation, 2) cognitive structure is constructed through continuous interaction between an organism and its environment, and 3) acquired specific knowledge is determined by the level of operations in cognitive structure. He then proposed several important topics for study within this paradigm. Muto, the last speaker, also admitted that there is some interesting truth in Piaget's basic assumptions or meta-theory, e. g., his emphasis of rationality of cognition and active nature of interaction with the environment. But he was very critical of the third assumption by Nakagaki. Instead of postulating the existence of uniform stages of development, which has not been supported empirically, Muto proposed to assume a set of concrete schemata, which can interact and influence each other Three discussants made comments from their own perspectives. Maruno asserted that we now might study processes of shift between stages or of self-regulation, using the concept of schema. Arai pointed out that though Piaget's systematic theorizing was attractive, his emphasis of corstructivism often led him to underestimate the role of education in development. Finally, Ochiai, after reviewing recent empirical findings, suggested to combine Piagetian and cognitive science approaches. Discussions among the participants clarified several debatable issues, but failed to agree on many points.
The studies of the mother-child relationship promote overprotection and overinterference by the mother as well as her isolation from society and a symbiotic relationship between mother and children. Last year, a pediatrician, Dr. S. Kyutoku published his new book entitled “BOGENBYO”(illnesses caused by the mother). This book has been a best seller. In this book, Dr. Kyutoku says that 60% of illnesses (including physical & emotional diseases) are caused by errors during child-rearing by the mother. I think that the theory of “BOGENBYO” is more radical than such theories as skinship, hospitalism, maternal deprivation and mothering, since it places more responsibility on the mother than other theories. These theories are the results of studies on the development of inf ants only from the viewpoint of the mother-child relationship. Dr. J. Bowlby said in his book, “Maternal Care and Mental Health” that egoism, shop lifting, sexual misconduct and all physical, mental and social illnesses of children are caused by maternal deprivation. But his data was collected only from children who had lived in impoverished hospitals and had lost their parents in The Second world War. Surely, his data and theories strongly emphasized the need for good human relationships, especially between the mother and child in early infancy. But these theories have been imported and uncritically applied to the mother-child relationships in Japan. Many foreign psychologists have studied and pointed out that the symbiosis between mother and child in Japan is traditionally stronger than in other countries. Even so, these theories were repeatedly introduced to Japanese mothers through many childrearing books, magazines and TV program. If we deal with these theories only, we miss another very important point. Japanese society does not encourage father to take care of their children, though it is abnormal that the emphasis of childreaning be limited only to the mother. A more adequate study must be done on the role of the father in the development of infants.
T. Tsutsui organizer and speaker, emphasizes seven sins in educational psychology a deduction from a certain dualism between mind and body: 1. Educational psychology cannot understand the relation between concrete things and the mind. 2. It cannot explain the existence of other persons, and entrust it to the belief. 3. It instigates the competition of merits and points. 4. It treats the object of study as a thing. 5. It subordinates people to the investigating or teaching persons. 6. It also promotes the tendency that people make themselves subordinate to other persons.7. It ignores the relational existence of everything. E. Yamashita has hitherto inquired into educational realities from phenomenological point of view. But he insists now on the particular importance of the “discriminating problems” in Japan he not only observes phenomenological facts of discrimination, but also commits himself to the side of the “discriminated”. According to him, existing educational psychology is in danger of taking part with governing and discriminating powers: for example, the compulsion of hard experiment to the weak “subjects”, the testing in order to discriminate elite from other people, etc. He declares the meaninglessness of so-called experimental or positive data which have no reflection on the latent social purposes behind “scientific” investigations. Yamashita's phenomenological position seems more active than that of other phe-nomenological psychologists. K. Nakazawa is a biologist and an investigator of early childhood education. According to her experience as biologist, the study of biology has been carried on from passionate motive,“simply because I like it”, even if it is of no use in practical life. At present, however, the social situation versus sciences has quite changed; the application of biology in actual society has brought the weed killer on one hand and the bacteria weapon on the other. Even pure motives towards basic sciences may be a danger if used for evilly social aims; scientists who have no perspective in general human questions must not engage in biological study. In educational psychology too, the same circumstances as the above-mentioned ones exist. Nakazawa insists on the necessity of a psychological study on educational goals, and on the attitude of psychologists; he puts much emphasis on the fact that such a study should be done not from an adult's but from a child's point of view.
Recently the studies of infant development have increased tremendously in Japan as well as in many other countries. It seems appropriate now that we reflect on the significance and the role of infant studies in the future. This is what motivated us to hold our symposium on the infant development. Y. Yano put a question on what an infant study should be, examining historical and social backgrounds inquiring on child problems in some present infant studies actually on. Y. Yamashita criticized previous learning on the subject and emphasized the necessity of explicating developmental intercorrelations among several functions resulting from early stimulations, as being insufficient in earlier infant studies. K. Okamura suggested that an interpersonal relationships in infancy as a main theme of the infant study should be approached and pointed out some perspectives and methods for such neglected study. S. Hamada emphasized the importance of grasping infant as a whole, criticizing present psychology for separating infant's abilities from its real life and abstracting its functional aspects.
I. The Presentation of Problems In our Association of Educational Psychology there are many researches on infant, but there are few on Infant Education. Infants develop under the influence of external conditions. So research on infants should also include its conditions. Besides, it is observed that there are disparate opinions on infant education. It is said that it is best for infants to be cared of by its mother (included the acting mother) only. Another one is that the best for infants is to be cared of by the both of specialists of group education and parents. The result is that, “Baby-Hotels” are created, also called Nursery on a commercial basis. So we, educational Psychologists, must find appropriate methods of research in infant development in connection with education and social environment. The above opinions were opened for discussion. II. Reports Kaneko who had researched in Infant Development in Hospital for Nursing, insisted it was most important for infants to form what is called “Attachment”. Shimizu who has researched on Infant Development in Nursery School indicated some strong points of Nursery Education: (1) Importance of rhythmical organization of daily life in infants (2) Organization of “the Nearest Zone of Development” (3) Organization of relationships in infants, and suggested that the effects of Nursery Education had to be discussed systematically. Kondo who has researched on biology and infant education reported the relation between brain-function and infant care, and insisted on the importance of autonomical-neurosystem concerning material environment, and institutes: Human feelings are of two types: (A) individual particularities, specially at home (B) social humanism.(A) and (B) are indispensable and interactive with each other. If almost all adults could realize such interaction. Infant Care would be improved and the Care at home and that at nursery school would become complementary and be unified in future. III. Discussion 1. A Nursery Education by group relations(kondo vs. Kaneko)-Both reporters do not jump on the conclusion. Kondo insists on the importance of full activity in infancy, Kaneko insists on the importance of “Attachment” for such activity realized in psychological optimum. And Kondo emphasizes at length “Nursery by infant group relation” as a new human social experiment considered historically. 2. Relations between Difference of Fields and Methods of Resarch-from the view point of Infant Separation-(Kaneko vs. Shimizu)-Both reporters here agree on the case of 1-2 year-old infants experimenting the Anxiety of Separation regardless of fields (hospital, nursery school or home). Shimizu dares say here: in this period it is necessary to improve intant-rearer techniques as well as to have infant-rearer communications 3. The Relation between Maternity and Paternity: mother's milk and artific feeding-There are two opinions: one is that Maternity is the same as Paternity: another one is that generally both are equal but Maternity is dominant only for the ealiest period of infancy. The breast-feeding by the mother in the early rearing is significant on the basis that it gives confidense to the mothers in controlling their children's desire. 4. About Individual Feeling (Kondo) or Attachment (Kaneko)-How to produce such feelings in hospitalized infants-One question remans: If we recognize such feeling as indispensable in bringing up infants we might limit possibility in hospitalized infants. Therfore what is more important is how to produce such feelings in the human group relationships in the hospitalized infants. Kondo sugg sts the “WARABIZA” nursery (children separated and educated away from their parnts from 45 days old to highschool age) as being an answer. This last subject remains a topic for further opened discussions.
Purpose We tried to clarify the necessity of counseling training for school teachers. There are many problems in Japanese school education such as classroom and family violences by students, slow learning, neurosis and suicides of students. To prevent those problems, teachers must have the knowledge and the techniques of counseling and should do effective guidance. To form those able teachers, the system of credits on counseling for school teachers in Japanese higher education must be intensified. Contents Jiro Nakazawa There is no full-time counselor system in Japanese schools, and every teather has to be a school counselor. Nine student teachers of Univ. of Tsukuba had experimental counselor training in this summer vacation and it was successful and those student teachers took great advantages of the experience. Kotaro Harano Japanese secondary education is carried out in a classroom system. All students have the same subjects at the same time in the same classroom by the same teacher. Students have no choice of subjects and of teachers. But this system will be over in a near future and students will select their subjects and teachers, and in their selection, students would need counseling. There is also another reason for the necessity of school counselors. That is the big changes in Japanese society and schools must also change following those social changes. Then schools are in need of effective counselors well trained at the university. Yasutaka Kokubu In present Japanese schools, teachers are very poor at counseling students and principals do not see the necessity of counseling. Many problems have arisen lately showing the urgence of counselor training for teachers during college. while training counselors, we must instruct than of the many theories and methods in counseling. In such counselor training, practice of techniques of counseling must be a priority. Mikio Shimizu The educational functions of counseling are very important to school teachers. Those functions suggest the new principles and new methods of school education. Value identification, self theory, role-playing, sensitivity training and other principles and methods in counseling are very useful to new school education. The skill of human relations is of prime importance to teacher training.
This symposium was held for further discussion on the role of the study of human development in a modern society. The major points of arguments were as follows: (1) When a researcher expresses his opinions on the development of child rearing, the expressed opinions necessarily include some speciality of himself or of researchers as a whole. But this phenomenon is different from the one of “a specialist” in relation to parents and it takes side with the administrative order. This double standpoints make real structure of reseachers and parents. (2) There are two types of parents. Those who are slaves of psychological informations, and those independent of psychological informations. Researchers must make efforts to know what kind of parents they are dealing with. (3) We should be able to know the meaning of “expectation” to the study development for informations and guidance to parents, and find out the social (or parental) mechanism of expectation. Then, we would grasp the contents of mass information and the situation of mass information totally. And the position of the study of human development in the modern society would appear.
The broad aim of the symposium was to identify the theoretical and methodological problems provided by the practice in early childhood education, and to explore the extent to which theoretical development in developmental psychology might provide useful knowledge with regard to the practice in early childhood education. Minamitate pointed out the shortcomings of ordinary teacher training course which relied on the lecture method,and reported on the experimental case study method ln which each student teacher observe her assigned child. Muto presented the method of analysing educational objectives by means of analysis of children's cognitive schemata. Ueno discussed implication of recent theoretical development in child psychology on the evaluation of early childhood education,and emphasized the role of the context in which chil's behavior occurs. Tajima presented a methodological framework to guide the reseach on cognitive socialization of young children,and discussed its implication in educational practice.
Aim: This symposium aimed at clarifying a new theoretical background of instructional design and teachillg which will contribute to the improvement of classroom teaching. Speech summarized: 1. “Instructional Design and Instructional Model” by Nakano The design of instruction should be made in consideration of a variety of instructional models. Any designing after a single model such as programmed instruction should bc avoided.In addition to this,not noly controlable external events but also less controlable intemal events of the learner should be taken into consideration,and these two kinds of factors should be matched in any instructional design. 2. “ATI and Theohes ofInstruction” by Tada It is to be pointed out that instruction has so far been designed disregarding the so-called side-effect, that is incidental learning effect;also,the cognitive model has always been applied even to a different type of instruction.In Tada's ATI study,children are classified into nine different types according to their preference pattern for internal symbol use, and these types of cognitive pattern are interacted with instructionals trategiesf or instance,in the learning of mathematical group concept 3. “Instructional Design by COMET Method” by Sakamoto COMET is one of the methods for instructional design developed in Sakamotoss laboratory. Four components of classroom teaching,Child(C),Objective(O), Method (ME), and Teacher (T) are integratedl to secure an optimal plan for classroom teaching. The main procedure of instructional design by the COMET method is (1) goal analysis,(2) analysis of instructional materials,(3) evaluation items,(4) design of Teaching process,(5) desk top teaching simulation game,and(6) accomplishment of instructional design. 4. “Instructionl by Radio and Television” by Akiyama. The use of educational programs in classroom instruction has so far been done nearly independent of the findings of educational psychology.It seems that broadcast programs may not be well incorporated with the idea of instructional design. But,tape-recorded programs become sound and image materials,instruments that any teacher may use and easily incorporate with the design of instruction. Discussions: (1) As it is desirable that students in and teacher training course have some experience of instructional design by the COMET method,it is appropriate to say here that Sakamoto is teaching this procedure in three universities except the unit and pakcage parts. (2) Any single instructional model can not meet all the instructional needs.The teacher must be able to design his or her instruction with the use of different models. (3) In some cases,instructionald esign which aims at the so-called sideeffect is to be recommended when it is judged more appropriate. (4) Instructional design should include the preparation of “soft-structured” learning environment in order to meet varieties of learner's preference. (5) The teacher should be sensitive enough to recognize any unexpected learning effect on the part of children.
The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine the relationship between thought and language with 24 normal children from the age of 6 to 36 months. First, the order of emergence among thought and language variables was from the visual representation of a hidden object at multiple places measured by fixation time (range: 6-8 months), to the pointing behavior to known objects (range: 9-12 months), and then to the first meaningful word observed in laboratory settings (range: 10-22 months). However, the correlations between the above thought and language variables were not always significant. Second, prior to the emergence of two-word utterances (range: 18-28), not only the percentage of symbolic play was increased at a high rate but also symbolic play became more complex in a sequence of 4 to 8 different acts. Yet, all the variables of symbolic play and language were not correlated significantly. Third, thought and language variables at 36 months showed significantly positive correlations in most cases. The subjects' classification abilities and their results on the Suzuki-Binet Intelligence Test were the thought variables. The language variables, on the other hand, were their verbalization abilities on substitution with colored blocks in free play with mothers, and their results on the Japanese version of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. In summary, up to 2 years of age, there was a consistant trend of thought development preceding that of language. However, the correlations between thought and language variables were not always significant probably due to other factors, such as qualities of mother-child relationship, which also would influence on the development of language. When the subjects reach 36 months old, their language skills are well established. Thus it is Presumed that there are significantly positive correlations between thought and language variables.