Both Symposiums I and II were introduced by T. Miyagaw a, Organizer. One of the various purposes of educational psychology aims at studying educational and social conditions by which problems of adolescents and youth, such as many acting-outs (violence and other ddinquent behaviors) would help its decrease. As a part of educational psychology, the psychology of adolescence has something to do with these problems, at least in coping with the concerned problem of students' violence in high schools; no doubt, such a trend calls for not only a psychological but an historical and practical examination in a frank discussion on ways to deal with such an actual problem. Noju pointed out that the history of recent school violence could be divided into four stages; three of them could be summarized as follows: a) School administration interference oppressing students' freedom; b) Teachers miscontrolling students' repulsion; and c) Students' misconducts as such. Students' violence escalated from varbal to concrete physical attacks towards teachers reaching its present alarming situation. Noju emphasized that an agreement on educational principles was becoming compulsory among teachers regarding confrontation with students; an awareness of the problem by teachers and a feeling of responsibility facing it were badly needed dispositions to cope with the actual trend toward the use of violence by high school students. Kikuchi pointed out his personal shocking experience in a junior high school where he had just been transferred to. He found there no possible permissive and empathetic atmosphere for students making even minor mistakes; besides, the local educational administration was under strains: frank and adequate communication among educational leaders, teachers and students were completely lacking. Komiyama mentionned a police survey showing seven characteristics of students' violence: 1) Its aggressiveness is aggravating; 2) apprcNcimately 58% of junior students using violence are members of some local delinquent groups (bancho); 3) 85% of the 592 studied cases are considered as students below average in their school achievement; 4) The frequency of crime and misbehavior committed by such students are considered higher than general delinquent adolescents; 5) Most of their family condition is either considered as “left-alone” or “broken” 6) The so-called “educational consideration”, i. e. a peaceful treatment, by their school authorities contributed negatively to improve the situation; 7) Violence is not limited only to local schools but widely spreading and aggravating: it even occurs inside a class session. “Violence at school and athome” by Osaka. The speaker's personal experience at a treatment center for emotionally disturbed adolescents was reported. These adolescents seemed to be victims rather than genuine aggressors if one looked at their living background and environments. Fujita added that a historical review of the violence was made in a social and educational context, pointing a dysfunction of family and school in terms of developing the whole personality of an individual. Ending the session, appropriate comments by two discussants and six participants were made at length and could be summarized as follows: 1) Needs and feelings of violent students were to de better examined rather than a study of their occurence or phenomenal characteristics by adolescent psychologists. 2) Developmental process of internalization of behavioral cords (self-discipline) and its degree in present violent students was to be studied by psychologists.
Professor Akiba pointed out,as a genetic task to be executed in psychology of adolescence,theoritical research of personality development along with a certain attempt to solve practical problems. He somewhat criticized the opinion sustaining that violence at school was an expression of needs and desires of present young people.Instead,he felt such behavior was a rather distcrted and primitive expression hardly finding “youth-likeness” in such behavior. To prove his statement he compared responses of second and fifth grade school students (15,000 in all);for example,to the question:“From whom do you expect a disciplinary or guiding support,or a warm,careful or trusting attitude ?” he found that 75% of those students chose “none” out of the following words “father,mother,brother,relatives, teachers,” with no significant differences as to grade, locality and sex.He considered that the cause to the above results was vagueness in children's values or value-feelings as to what were the most important demands from the above mentionned adults. A historical and social analysis of value-feelings was urgently and badly needed. Professor Takahashi offered the following three points to the psychologists of adolescence,asking for a thorough study from the point of view of “life-long developmet of psychologists.” First,violence at school should be merely considered as a protest more than anything else.There must be other reasons than “crowed psychology”. Secondly,the phenomenon seemed to be more than just an emotional problem but being connected to some cognitive aspects such as low grade in school achievement.Third,data collection by means of teaching practice and case study was necessary in order to do longitudinal observation and analysis from the angle of life-long development psychology, in relation to the question of continuity-discontinuity in human development. Professor Kozawa pointed out the following three problems regarding teacher-student relationship: 1) in any research in psychology of adolescence efforts through an idiographic approach should be better emphasized than an application of general principles regarding daily life of young people.2) A more interpersonal or relational approach between a researcher and his subjects (adolescents) should be favored in order to obtain frank and accurate feelings from them,even in the case of students' violence.3) For college students taking courses for a teacher's certificate,a course on psychology of adolescence Should be taken with more emphasis on practical experiences through which each of them could be better aware of the “own self” and its “meaning” in any educational phenomenon (such as violence at school);such courses would allow college students to become high school teachers with a better and wider knowledge of a human being. Professor Susumu Toda pointed out that the phenomenon of violence in schools was not only shared by violent students but was also more or less attributed to a prevailed expression of “adolescent-likeness” which had not changed itself but,form time to time,has been inclined to appear as a natural reaction to “distortion” in our society.Such distortion in society and politics had become so intensified in school education that a solution to the problem has been considered impossible unless a certain measure be taken on the improvement of society and politics,Psychology of adolescence should function not only on a nomothetical point of view but also as a practical study encouraging development of youth and their teachers in an active participation in educationol guidance. Professor kato made comments mainly in relation to a needed students' experience responsibility in their daily life,and he emphasized a predictive and historical viewpoint in the psychology of adolescence.
This symposium was part of a series started last year.At the beginning,we discussed what was essentials for a development of early infants.It was found that organizations 1) of material environment including rythmical organization in daily life, 2) relations in infants, 3) leading,were to be considered as essential elements in such a development. The second session discussed relations in infants concerning two of the above and its method of approach. Three reporters shared the ideas on the subject but using different methods. Shimizu reported on infant relations at home and at the nursery,especially infants from 6 months old to 1.5 years old.On this age the part of adults is lead infant's act meaning.In that level it was said that adults have the same part at home and at the nursery.But the phenomena of adult-infant relations showed differences with each plase. The Second reporters were from a Hospital for infant rearing.Suzuki talked on the subject of infant rearing in relations with infants among themselves. Yonekawa reported the result of an experimental study of relations in a hospital for infants from the view point of “looking at” and “touching” adults and peers.(Differences between “adult→inf ant” and “infant?.adult”.were found). A third reporter,Miyake,referred to studies of peer interaction in Europe and America;the trend and a point in dispute of such studies were talked at length.-DISCUSSION-From the very beginning Takahashi gave four points for discussion on the subject.Its contents were discussed by other speakers and a summary follows. Nagano pointed out the importanse for nursery teacher to connect conscious infant peers looking for interactions in phenomena. Discussion was brought up on two of Takahashi's four points 1) About a methodological problem i, e.Relations between field and laboratory study, 2) About relations between both interactions of “adults?infants” and of peers in early infancy. 1) It was agreed that both studies correlated with each other.But both researchers were asked on what to think of a context or how to observe infant behavior.One of the answers was that the field situation was very changeable from meaningless to very significant. A consideration of relations between researchers and infants in field situation was needed.Also another method has to be found as to the data of a laboratory to a field situation. 2) As for the second subject there was little discussion Nowadays it was agreed upon the need for both human relations of adult⇔infant and of peer interaction.So it is up to us to better clarify the origin of growth in both relations between continuity and discontinuity on a developmental process of human interactions.
Takayama emphasized that educational psychologists ought to make clear their own view of desirable development,personality,education,culture, society,etc.,and that they should get data of both subjects and inqiring psychologists themselves. Yokoyama pointed out three possible approaches to new educational psychology:(1) To select the most desirable from past psychological theories,and to extend educational-psychological studies on such bases:(2) To reform all frames of reference in past systems of educational psychology,and to build new paradigms:(3) To criticize not only past educational-psychological theories but also their social background.As of the second approach Yokoyama presented three paradigms:(i) Human being as a whole calling for relationship with each other: (ii)The stratification of three levels of temporal aspect: individual,natural,and social history;(iii) The concept of personality to be made through the denial of individualistic and private thinking. Hayasaka discussed widely the spreading misunderstanding on the concept of “subjectivity”.He discriminated three levels of subjectivity:(1) Merely individual and private,therefore non-general, non-public subjectivity.(2) Intersubjective recognition based on “natural attitude” (Husserl).For example,visual illusion is common event to everyone, though it is an inner and private phenomenon.(3) At once personal and public recognition posible only through specialistic training,such as the dia gnosis of X-ray photograph.New educational psychology must be a generalization founded on the process from (1) through (2) to (3). Discussant Yamashita denied the necessity of contemporary educational psychology,but required such educational psychology avording pressure on children. Discussant Nakazawa stressed on setting psychological problems from the side of:children,and on the cooperation between psychologists in university and teachers in school.
Aim: This symposium aimed at clarifying various requisites for the ontogeny of language function. Yamada insisted that the merging of the social and physical worlds such as emergence of appropriate manipulation and the formation of three-component-relation was accounted for by the important change of the action prior to speech. Kawakami explained the possibility that social vocalization in early infancy changes the development of verbalization. And even he presented a new behavioral category (named Formal Communicating Behavior: F. C. B.) to describe his opinion. Hatano's speech tried to propose an explanation of the cognitive universals in early language acquisition by children, and tried to clarify the acquisition of functional negation expressed by gesture, sound, intonation patterns, language and so on. Yamagami insisted that her work with a number of autistic children demonstrated some significance of the child's capacity to make use of his mother as an important person for his further cognitive growth.
Recently the task of education for the disordered children has been more and more complicated and difficult on account of the increasing number of multi-handicapped children. In the past the main purpose of education for the disordered children was, first to train children's everyday conduct, to train their communication behavior based on the spoken language, and then to make them overcome their handicap. In the future, it will be necessary to improve radically the contents and methods of education with due regard for the formation processes of human behavioral organization. Now to seek such new methods of education for the multi-handicapped children is badly needed, methods forming the basis for the integrated human behavior of a high order. Through our longitudinal study on the formation processes of the integrated behavior in the various types of the disordered, it was experimentally tried to devise the various kinds of training methods and we succeeded in establishing respective aboriginal or constructive sighs. From now on it will be helpful to establish the essentially new training method of education for the multi-handicapped.
The purpose of this symposium was to describe the existing conditionings in advanced training (i, e. Doctor Course of university) of educational psychologists, clarify the problems, discuss and explore a strategy for innovating and improving the program of advanced training of educational psychologists in Japan. Sugihara made a survey, by mailing to 14 universities, a questionnaire including items about the size of faculty members, their specializing fields, the relation between faculty members' researches and the program of advanced training etc. The serious problems which he found out were as follows: (1) The faculties of education in Japan are generally so small in terms of size that they cannot offer a wide variety of lectures and seminars considered as indispensable in training educational psychologists.(2) The curriculums lack organization chiefly because the objectives and the areas of educational psychology have not been cleary defined. Ohmura provided useful information about the graduate training program at Stanford University strikingly contrasting with Japanese institutions. At Standford's faculty of education, lectures and seminars are well organized by many faculty members. Besides, graduate students are required to take their related psychological courses at the Department of psychology. They are expected to obtaincomprehensive professional understanding of educational problems met by administrators, supervisors, guidance workers, curriculum specialists and school psychologists. Graduate students are highly encouraged to do cooperative studies with their advisers. The faculty members believe that research training can be accomplished only through direct experience of research under the guidance of advisers. This system could be compared to the tutorial system. Sakano presented an instructive and suggestive report concerning the program of training educational psychologists at Karl-Marx University, Lerptzig, GDR. In GDR, the objective of educational psychology is clearly and unequivocally defined. In accordance with this, the curriculums for educational psychology are clearly planned and well organized. The minimum units, which students are required to complate during their five years' residence, amount to twice as many as in Japan. After two years' training of general education and fundamentals of psychology, students receive special training to become professional psychologists. The fact that training is systematically plamed and dominantly vocational in its contents is characteristic of GDR. Umemoto's proposal for renovating the advanced training of educational psychologists at Japanese universities coincided with discussant Kojima's opinion,;(1) The objective, areas and contents of educational psychology should be clearly defined.(2) The urgent need for educational psychologists is to comprehend the complex context in which educational phenomena appear. It is also inevitably required of them to conduct researches for the purpose of solving problems met by people actually working in educational situations.(3) It is an undeniable fact that a majority of graduate students aspire to professorship in colleges and universities. Therefore, the curriculums at the faculty of education must be arranged so that graduate students may acquire qualified ability for teaching educational psychology as well as academic competence for carrying out scientific researches.