This paper examiness ome moral componentso f achievements trivings. A conceptual analysis of the distinction between ability and effort is offered in which the assignmento f responsibilityan d the affectiver eactionse licitedby this beliefp lay key roles in mediatingb etweenan achievemenot utcomeand the evaluationo f that outcome.Three new research directions are then pointed out that pertain to a distinction between onset versus offsetr esponsibilityfor achievementf ailure,the perceivedf airnesso f achievement evaluation,andw hat adolescentsc ommunicateto peers and adults followinga chievement outcomes.
This paper contains a review together with some considerations concerning studies on life-span developmental psychology, centering around the studies on adult development. Recently, adult life is regarded as a period of development with the changes of life-cycle and life styles. However, the history of the studies of adult development is comparatively short.Mainly, Epigenetic Scheme by Erikson (1950) built a theoretical base for the study on adult development, and empirical studies on adult development have been rapidly increasing since 1970's, for example, Levinson(1978), Gould (1978), and Vaillant (1977). The following points are suggested by the above mentioned studies:(1) there is a common developmental process in adult life.(2) It is also observed that there are some critical periods in psychological development such as middle age crisis and late adult transition. On the other hand, the developmental studies on adult identity is gradually increasing from 1980. The above studies reveal some important view points proving psychological changes in adulthood in its totality.
A system of school psychologists started to be organized in Japan.In this article writtern by a Japanese school psychologist trained in the United States,a history of school psychology and services of school psychologists in the U. S.(e. g., assessment, counseling, consultation) are introduced.Also studied are several issues regarding school psychology services such as career guidance and consultation with teachers on learning problems. Models of school psychology services (e. g., centralized or decentralized services)and training of school psychologists in U. S.graduate schools in terms of scientist-practitioner or applied professional psychologist are introduced.Implications of American school psychology services to Japanese school psychology are also discussed atlength.
Problems concerning measurement and evaluation of Japanese Language aptitude and proficiency are discussed.As the results of the increase in number of the Japanese Language learners,we are now facing great varieties of learners particularities such as mother tongues,learning aptitude,learning experiences,learning purposes, and so on.Current problems consist of determining in the varieties,and developing the evaluation methods which can facilitate learners'self-directed learning activities as well as the methods of their feedback.
The purpose of this article is to review studies published mainly in 1992 and 1993and to examine the direction and status of educational psychology in Japan. At first, the35th Annual Convention of the Japanese Association of Educational Psychology (JAEP) was outlined.Next, researches were reviewed on the following eight categories, that is, 1)life-span development, 2) health psychology, 3) study of“self”, 4) everyday cognition in a socio-cultural context, 5) development of social competence, 6) school psychology, 7) development of fundamental cognition,and8)handicapped children (people). As Yamamoto,Mimani & Yoshida(1993)pointed out in their review for this journal, from this research review,educational psychologists in Japan are found to face and wrestle with such socially new issues as rapid transition into aging society, concerns of people of all ages for health, wants for humanistic development after mid-life including self-actualization, and needs for school reforms and restructuring of school curricula.