Japanese women and mothers have been very much interested and famous for the close tie with child and warm devoted love for child among many researches from cultural and developmental view points. Recent discussions on the construals of self have also evoked strong interest in interdependent relationships among Japanese which are typically reflected in mother-child relationships. However, recent drastic social changes in Japan including industrial structure, international status, population/demographic conditions have brought the striking impact upon the life and psychological states of Japanese women. In this paper, re-examinations will be made whether well-known characteristics of Japanese women/mothers still exist by presenting recent empirical data on parents'feeling on child/child-care, reasoning of having child, sex-role attitudes, the nature of self-esteem and so on. Discussions will be made concerning the conceptions and realities of women/mothers in socio-cultural contexts.