The Atkinson-Shiffrin (A-S, 1968) model enhanced James' (1890) dual memory processes (short-, long-term memory/STM, LTM) over Ebbinghaus' (1885) unitary process. But, Baddeley and Hitch (B-H, 1974) attempted to replace STM by working memory (WM). The Japanese Monbu-sho previously translated WM as “Sagyo Kioku, ” but later changed to “Sado Kioku.” All 30 Japanese-English bilinguals (Exp.1) and 19 Chinese-English bilinguals (Exp.2) selected “Sagyo Kioku” as expressing WM best, and 98% rejected “Sado Kioku”. Results underscore the necessity for reviving the older, more accurate terminology, “Sagyo Kioku” henceforth. The alleged demise of STM/replacement of STM by WM claimed by some WM enthusiasts/sympathizers appears inappropriate: No objective signs of the diminution of STM research, contrasted with WM activities, emerged via Psychological Abstracts, Citation Indices, and the thrusts of 39 critiques in Cowan (2001). Both STM research and the evolution of A-S type models continue to thrive with greater vigor than those of WM. Definitions of WM diffe r greatly among individual models/experiments. Such difficulties are compounded because WM does not adequately describe the psychological processes by excessively limiting itself to the memory components alone, stifling creative development of this field. To resolve current terminological chaos, Izawa (2001) proposed Working Cognit i o n (WC), a far more comprehensive construct that involves all cognitive processes (including memory) necessary for solving any task. The strengths of WC dwell in its capacity to accommodate many problems/issues raised by representative models because WC includes all cognitive processes and their dynamic and flexible properties toward a Newell (1990) type unified theory.
Development of comprehensive psycho-educational programs for students in a middle school attached to a university is presented. The rationale for comprehensive psycho-educational programs, basic concepts, methods and procedures, and curriculum development are discussed. Background of the birth of comprehensive psycho-education and the integration of psycho-educational programs and clinical knowledge are reviewed. Collaboration, reframing, and empowerment are discussed as basic concepts in comprehensive psycho-education. In the last section, the developmental process of using a psycho-educational program at a school is described in the context of integration with “Comprehensive Studies” and “Mind Education”.