There has been much discussion as to whether heredity or environment is the more influential factor in personality development of the individual: Clinicians as a general, insist on regarding the heredity as rather an influential factor. On the other hand, psychologists insist on regarding environment as rather an influential one. J. F. Brown (1936) once tried to unify these contradictory viewpoints by applying “Field Theory”. However, his attempt has seemed not to be accepted. And it was likely to be impossible, at that stage of experiment, to define the roles of these two factors for personality development. Consequently, a more comprehensive study of the relationship between heredity and environment seems to be needed, as is suggested by R. B. Cattell (1965). Under this circumstance, we, the members of Japan Women's University study group, have tried to investigate this problem by reviewing some of the experiments on animal psychology, in order to find how an experience of the infant affects his character formation. At the same time, we have proceeded to study a relation of child-rearing to character formation and the child-rearing as it is seen as determinant variable for the achievement drive of the individual child.
After the Chairman explained the significance of taking up the theme “Behavior Observation and Measurement” for the Symposium, the members reported as follows: Tsumori reported on the qualitative observation of the behavior development. He described the limited function of V. T. R., based on his data, for observing the events which were not revealed through mechanical means (i. e. gaining insight). Also he refered to the relations between the interpretations of the observers of V.T.R. and the comments of nursery school teachers on the same event. Shimada reported on the analysis of the cohesiveness and the conforming behavior of infant groups. He observed member-attractiveness in the nursery school situation for assessing the variability of such behaviors. V. T. R. and behavior analyzer were used. He studied the difference of conforming behavior in both groups. He found that use of behavior observation apparatus were more effective for acquiring valid data of such experimental group study. Hirao reported on the behavior capacity of man. He described that the objective understanding of behavior would be possible in the form of interaction between man's behavior and the environment. Sakuma introduced the methodology of behavior observation on the standpoint of industrial engineering. He reported the semtar, unopar, memo-motion and V. T. R. were useful for such purposes. Yamaguchi reported some applications for operant principles for deviant child behavior, especially for the mentally retarded. The examples were as follows: 1. Toilet training of the retarded, by Montrose Wolf. 2. Programmed instruction to teach academic skills to educable retarded children, by Bijou et al. 3. An analysis of the reinforcing function of “Sit Down” commands, by Charles M. Madsen, Jr., Wesley C. Becker, and Don R. Thomas et al. Comments were added to their reports about the procedures and event categories and codings. Main topics of discussion were as follows: (1) Problems of the limitations in measuring the human behavior through instrumental records. (2) The merits of observational study apparatus and the methods of standardization of such instrumental records. (3) The trainability of the psychological observation.
We reviewed the research report with regard to mental deficiency that published in Japan and Europe & America in 1963-1968. Contents of that review were the following sections of the research on Mental Deficiency. 1) Electroencephalography 2) Personality Theory & its Experimental Research 3)Learning 4) Psychotherapy 5) Therapeutic Education 6) Speech Disorder On personality theory and its experimental research, we reviewed chiefly studies in Europe & America and on therapeutic education, we reviewed chiefly studies in Japan.
The present paper is intended to review the recent experimental studies of group problem solving. It does not deal with all aspects of group problem solving, however. Our purpose is to consider several major variables which are known to affect group process and group productivity, and to examine them as they relate to group problem solving. These variables are group task, group size and group member attitude. Moreover, this paper will deal with the mathematical models in group problem solving as important as the generalizations from experimental data.