Semi-determination of Anisakis larvae crude antigen specific IgE in human serum was performed by the method of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in order to study the relationship between anisakiasis and anaphylaxis. Using the Ouchterlony method, significantly higher values of specific IgE were obtained from sera with precipitin bands to Anisakis larvae crude antigen than from control sera. Especially high values were obtained from sera of anisakiasis. To study the role of crude antigen for coating in ELISA in immunodiagnosis, crude antigen was fractionated into six parts on Sephadex G-200 column. Antigen determinant fraction of sera from five patients was investigated by ELISA. As a result, the antigen determinant fractions were showed difference with individual sera.
The inhibitory effect of IgG antibody on IgE antibody level assayed by paper disc RAST was evaluated using mite (Dermatophagoides farinae, D.farinae) antigen. A significant positive correlation was found between the IgE and IgG antibody levels. The IgG antibody levels in mite allergic patients were significantly higher compared with those in controls. The IgG antibody levels in the treated group (house dust immunotherapy) were higher but showed no significant difference from those in the untreated group. The RAST values were elevated by removal and suppressed by addition of IgG antibody. These results suggested that in D.farinae allergic patients, the IgE antibody levels even from untreated patients when assayed by paper disc RAST indicates a lower level in the presence of IgG antibody or antibodies of other classes. Furthermore, antibody levels by this method are measured frequently with excess antibody. These factors may produce a difficulty in precise estimation of the seasonal variations in IgE antibody levels or suppression of IgE antibody levels after immunotherapy. The preciseness of quantification by this method may be improved by the use of diluted serum, which is simple and preferable for miminization of the effect of the above 2 factors.
Surface basophilic cells in scrapings obtained from the inferior turbinate of nasal polyp patients were examined microscopically. While surface basophilic cells were believed to be specific to nasal allergy patients, we were able to observe them in nasal polyp patients. These cells were found in 5% of normal controls, in 14% of patients with chronic sinusitis without nasal polyp, in 65% with nasal polyp and in 91% with nasal allergy. In the patients with unilateral nasal polyp, the number of surface basophilic cells increased on the side with nasal polyp, but not on the side without nasal polyp. The larger the nasal polyp became, the more the number of surface basophilic cells increased. After the nasal polyp was removed, the cells decreased remarkably in number. In regard to other nasal diseases, surface basophilic cells were discovered in 80% of tracheotomized patients, in 88% of laryngectomized patients from laryngeal cancer, in 100% of patients with a tumor in the nasal cavity, in 100% of patients irradiated to nasal cavity and in 90% with atrophic rhinitis. Surface basophilic cells seem to increase in number through some mechanism following a blockage of the nasal airway by nasal polyp.
In order to find the state of sensitization to various antigens for adult bronchial asthma in Nagasaki prefecture located in western Japan, we investigatied the results of the intradermal test, threshold of the intradermal test, Prausnitz-Kustner reaction, and bronchial provocation test. The investigation included 613 asthamtic subjects using 59 allergens over a priod of 9 years (1975-1983). 1) House dust was the primary allergen in Nagasaki prefecture. Candida was the second most important allergen and Boehameria nivea third. 2) Boehemeria nivea was regarded as the most improtant of the pollen allergens in Nagasaki prefecture. 3) Rates of positive reactions for the intradermal test for a period of 9 years indicated increases for ragweed, no change for house dust and decreases for molds and barley straw. 4) Comparing positive test reaction rates between Nagasaki and published test results from other districts, Nagasaki was lower than Shizuoka and Kyoto and higher than sagamihara for house dust; lower then Niigata, Shizuoka and Tokyo for molds and about equal to Sagamihara and Kyoto for molds; and lower than Sagamihara for pollens, especially cedar pollen.
To investigate the role of T cell differentiation antigens in autologous mixed lymphocyte reactions (AMLR), anti-T3, anti-T4 and anti-T8 antibodies were added to AMLR cultures separately, and examined for their capacity to modulate the reactions. Both anti-T3 and anti-T4 antibodies manifested profound inhibitory effects on AMLR-induced proliferative responses, whereas anti-T8 antibody did not. We next examined the precise mechanisms by which anti-T3 and anti-T4 antibodies interfered with AMLR-induced proliferation. Our overall results indicate that anti-T3 antibody in no way inhibits the expression of interleukin 2 (IL 2) receptors on the responding T-cells in AMLR cultures, but markedly inhibits IL 2 production during the course of the AMLR culture. The reverse is true for anti-T4 antibody. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence that T3 antigen may be involved in IL 2 production processes in the AMLR and that T4 antigen may play an important role in the processes of IL 2 receptor expression on responder T cells in the reactions.
We have first asked if interactions between T-B cells are necessary to activate human B cells when stimulated with polyclonal B cell activators, pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I strain (SAC). When the cultures of B cells, T cells and monocytes were stimulated by either PWM or SAC, both stimulants could activate the B cells to secrete immunoglobulin (Ig). Moreover, when T cells were replaced by T cell-derived soluble factors, B cell-stimulating factors (BSF), SAC-stimulated, but not PWM-stimulated, B cells could differentiate into Ig-secreting cells. These results suggest that 1) B cells can be directly activated by SAC without T-B cell interactions to become sensitive to BSF, and that 2) the cellular interactions can be involved in the activation of B cells by PWM. A question has been raised from the above data as to whether the T-B cell interactions for the whole period of culture are needed to activate B cells by PWM. To adress this question, PWM-stimulated cultures of T and B cells and monocytes were harvested at various culture periods (1st-step cultures), B cells isolated, and those B cells were further incubated for 5 days with BSF (2nd-step cultures). The B cells from 1st-step culture incubated for more than 6 hours could proliferate and differentiate adequately in response to BSF. Addition of either T cell subset, T4^+ or T8^+ cells to 1st-step cultures of PWM-stimulated B cells demonstrated that interactions of B cells with T4^+, but not T8^+, cells are necessary for the B cell activation. Moreover, when either anti-Ia or anti-T4 antibody was introduced into the 1st-step cultures, B cells could not be activated by PWM to become sensitive to BSF in the 2nd-step cultures. In contrast, anti-T3 or anti-T8 antibody did not appear to exert any effects on the PWM-induced activation of B cells. We have next examined whether these monoclonal antibodies can modulate responsiveness of B cells that have been already activated by PWM in the 1st-step cultures and isolated from such the cultures to BSF in 2nd-step cultures. Addition of either monoclonal antibody to the 2nd-step cultures could not accelarate nor inhibit the ability of the B cells to proliferate and produce Ig in the 2nd-step cultures. The data presented in this paper suggest that SAC can activate B cells by themselves, and SAC stimulation does not require interactions with T cells, that recognitive interactions between Ia-like antigens on B cells and T4 antigens on T4^+ cells are essential for B cell activation by PWM, and that once those cells are activated by SAC or PWM, they will proliferate, differentiate and secrete Ig under the influence of BSF.
DNA synthesis in spleen cells and splenic T cells isolated from 70% hepatectomized mice was measured by a modified version of the method of Waithe et al. The incorporation of ^3H-TdR in these cells increased correspondingly with the increase of their cell number during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Simultaneously, macrophages from bone marrow or thymus as well as splenic macrophages enhanced the capacity to generate highly reactive species of oxygen metabolites after partial hepatectomy. In addition this generation of reactive species of metabolic oxygen was related to the increase in its accessory cell function that macrophages stimulate thymic T cells. These data suggest that successive activation of macrophages of various organs activates lymphocytes. The possibility of triggering the immune response during this activation of lymphocytes was discussed.
Airway responsiveness to methacholine was measured by modified Astograph (7Hz oscillation method) before and after ozone exposure in 6 beagles, and plasma TxB_2 and histamine were measured before and after ozone exposure. There was a significant increase in airway responsiveness to methacholine after ozone exposure in the 6 beagles (p<0.05). Three out of the 6 dogs showed an apparent increase in airway responsiveness to methacholine correlating with the increase in plasma TxB_2 after ozone exposure. But there were no changes of plasma histamine after ozone exposure in any of the 6 beagles. Furthermore, the increase of airway responsiveness to methacholine and TxB_2 induced by ozone exposure was significantly inhibited by prior treatment with OKY-046 (p<0.05). From these results, it was suggested that Tx plays an important role in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness induced by ozone exposure in dogs.