Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common comorbidity among patients with asthma. In addition, functional dyspepsia (FD) is characterized by upper abdominal symptoms without organic disease manifestations. However, the prevalence of FD among patients with asthma remains uninvestigated; therefore, herein, we investigated the prevalence of dyspepsia symptoms in these patients.
Methods: We recruited 156 patients with asthma from the outpatient clinic of Teikyo University Hospital and investigated the prevalence of dyspepsia symptoms using the modified Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD. Further, the relationship between dyspepsia symptoms and clinical background of asthma was also investigated.
Results: Certain digestive organ symptoms were exhibited by 83% of patients with asthma, dyspepsia symptoms by 44%, and reflux symptoms by 26%. The dyspepsia-dominant group showed significantly higher female ratio and numerically lower %FEV1 than the asymptomatic group. In the group with dyspepsia score >5 points, the ratio of patients undergoing step 4 asthma treatment and the ratio of those using long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist were higher than those in the group with a score <5 points. Furthermore, endoscopic diagnosis was also made in 84 patients and the prevalence of FD was 21%.
Conclusion: A considerable proportion of patients with asthma exhibited dyspepsia symptoms, and the asthma severity in patients with dyspepsia was higher than those in asymptomatic patients. Based on the current findings, more attention should be directed to FD, in addition to GERD, as a comorbidity of the digestive system in patients with asthma.
We present a case of early childhood-onset pork-cat syndrome possibly due to sensitization by both cats and dogs. A 6-year-old girl was referred to our hospital because of repetitive episodes of urticaria when she consumed pork meat. The patient lived with a dog and the ground floor of her house was a veterinary clinic run by her veterinarian parents. Blood tests demonstrated high specific IgE (≥50UA/ml) against cat dander, dog dander, pork, Sus s 1, Fel d 2, Can f 1, Can f 2, and Can f 3. The skin prick test was positive for raw pork and beef. Western blotting analysis detected hot spots on 67-kDa proteins in pork meat and cat dander extract. Cross-reactivity between these two proteins was confirmed by an inhibition test. Furthermore, crossreactivity between pork meat and dog dander extract was also noted. Taken together, the diagnosis of porkcat syndrome was made, and both cats and dogs were suggested to have led to the sensitization. The patient was advised to only eat well-cooked pork, and has been followed thereafter without additional reactions. The previously reported cases of this syndrome developed during adolescence and young adulthood because a considerable period from the sensitization to the development cross-reactivity with pork meat is required. To our best knowledge, this is the youngest reported case of pork-cat syndrome among English and Japanese literatures. The nomenclature of this syndrome as pet animal-meat syndrome improves the understanding of the underlying pathogenesis of cross-reactivity between animal albumins and meat albumins.