The purpose of my paper is to make clear the meaning of the region today for agriculture and forestry. (1) The Japanese small family farming has been modernized with chemicallization (the much use of chemical fertilizrs and insecticides), mechanization and the promotion of monoculture. Such modernization of agriculture has brought up various problems…excessive investment, a low rate of land use, the destruction of organic farming system and so on. These problems are expected to be solved through the regional co-operative use of machinery, the formation of regional organization, the regional multiple farming, and the reorganization and combination of production and marketing system. (2) The economic and cultural concentration in big cities has weakened the infrastructure in rura region. Young people were disappointed on the actual conditions of rural region, then left home and went to big cities. We need to transform such region into comfortable life space. (3) The development of agriculture has often led to the production of unsafe food and to environmental pollution. In order to avoid this it is necessary to urge co-operation among regions, to integrate consumers and producers, and to conserve and make efficient use of energy and resourses in each region. In three aspects…economy, life and ecology…the regional point of view is becoming more and more important. The aim of modern agricultural study is to coordinare these three problems and to pursue and maximize values, that are economic value, life value and ecological value. Achieving this will lead to the formation of the “Hopeful Space” for our human life.
In this paper, the author attempted to review the three representative journals in Japan; the Journal of Rural Economics, the Japanese Journal of Farm Management, and the Journal of Rural Problem. The review deals with the study of production such as production structure, agricultural management, and so on, and also with that of market such as market response, the reorganization of wholesale markets, consumer demand, and so on. Our findings can be summarized as follows: The development of Japanese Agriculture after WWII is characrerized as a period of undersupply of agriculural products. Since farmers could sell out all their products, the issue to be tackled in this period was how to increase productivity. The second phase, from 1965 to the 1978's Oil Shock is that of overproduction. Since farmers could not sell out, the issue of this period was “what should the products be?”. The third phase, after 1978's Oil Shock, is that of coordinating the consumer market. Since farmers need to consider how to sell their product, with more advantageous conditions, the study of the market responses becomes very important. In this study, we refer an example about the family farming of pear to confirm our findings.
From the sociological viewpoint, I pose the following issues about a reality of the agricultural and mountain village in which the critical of issues agriculutural village, agriculture and forestry are arising most symbolically. 1. Stereotyped depopulation and advanced age and a disruption process of the community in the agricultural and mountain village. Difference and relation between the crisis of agriculture and that of agricultural village, Ways how to take part in these crisis. 2. Issues of the urabanization policy, which is inclined toward material modernization, bringing the agricultural and mountain village to a crisis. 3. An importance of redistribution and local transfer policy of income laying stress on the expansion and intensification of the social security system in the process of the modern of reorganization of the agricultural and mountain village.
The purpose of this paper is, first of all, to clarify the historical backgrounds of the decline of agriculture in Japan, the situation of the aggravation of policy conditions, and the problems of regional agriculture under these conditionss. The paper, then, raises two issues concerning the development of reglonal aglculture, which need to be considered for the activation of regional agriculture and rural community. The first issue is on the structural rerorm for solving the problems. The second is on how to wrestle with the problem of regenerating agriculture in the picture of reorganizing local society. The paper further discusses what policy conditions would help to solve the problems and make the activation of regional agrlculture possible. We conclude that the desirable policy needs: 1. To make up an excellent regional idea (a superior plan), and to make the plan which is consistent with the regional idea for developing regional agriculture and rural community, 2. To build up the structure which makes possible to fulfill the multiple function of agriculture, 3. To bring up persons who take responsibility for the regional agriculture adminis tration, and 4. To tackle concurrently the two fundamental for issues the development of regional agriculture.
This paper presents a unified planning model which incorporates both regional and farm managerial goals under uncertainty. We illustrate that the model, which adopts the probability maximization criterion, can be appropriately formulated as a nonlinear stochastic multiobjective programming model. Its deterministic equivalent problem gives us useful characteristics of the solution. We propose the algorithm based on the ε-constraint method, which is consistent with the characteristics of the model, to implement the planning. Finally, an illustrative example follows.
Recognizing the inter-village difference in term of the rate-of-changes of the number of farm households and the size of farmland, this paper attempts to construct a model to find out the factors of maintaining the stability of agricultural production and even rural society in mountain areas. The model takes into consideration the conditions which affect agriculture and forestry such as natural location, the types of various crop composition, the opportunities of off-farm employment within accessible area, the types of diversified agri-business, multiple farming, participation rate in agricultural co-operatives, and meeting frequency in community. The results show that the above-mentioned factors have been playing an important role for the maintenance of farm households and mountain villages, but in the villages where the public projects for the improvement of the production structure of agriculture and forestry were effectively introduced the variables which relate to the production of agriculture and forestry are more significant than that representing the opportunities of off-farm employment. Moreover, the significance of the variables that reflect the potential of ingenuity of farmers and local leaders becomes more notable, while the influence of conventional factors is declining.