The working of local markets depends on varieties of main crops in the districts where the markets are located. The features of the working should be changed by the alteration of agricultural structures and by the shifts of the districts from farm villages to urban areas. Many of local markets, especially small-scale local markets, are unable to develop spontaneously in step with these changes. In this paper, directions of the development are discussed in the relation to main central wholesale markets. One of the foundamental directions is to systematize all trades through local markets and central markets by utilizing the network of infomation and to support mutual collecting and selling activities among wholesale markets.
The models of Reilly and Huff show that a trade area of shopping facilities is determined by the attractions of the facilitiy, distance from the facility and commodity characteristics. The distance limitation, however, is relaxed by choosing the more efficient transport system, and so buyers have access to the preferable wholesale markets. The trading linkages between middle wholesalers and buyers are not so rigid: main buyers' trade partners are dispersed in many stalls of wholesalers and changed partly day by day. The wholesale market structure is not so stable as distibutors think. It is changeable to rebuild new market areas. This study shows a structural laxity of wholesale market area empirically: supplys of vegetables and fruits from Kyoto City Central Wholesale Market to Shiga Prefecture have been declining steady, while those of Osaka Prefectural Central Wholesale Market have been rising. It is the supermarkets that have caused these shifts.
The purpose of this paper is to study regional characteristics of the land improvement project from the viewpoint of economics. I make econometric models of rice production in Yamagata and Ibaragi, and simulate with these models to judge how the land improvement projects affect the rice production when the projects are carried out. The reason why I select these prefectures is that Yamagata is blessed with the natural conditions, such as climates and soil, for rice production, while Ibaragi is abundant in opportunities of employment. The findings are as follows. The simulation shows that in Yamagata the land productivity has improved more noticeably than the labour productivity, whereas in Ibaragi there has been a more improvement in the labour productivity. These results suggest that the projects mainly affect the rice yield in the regions where natural conditions are favorable, and affect the labour force in the regions where opportunities of employment are abundant. Land improvement projects have been carried out according to almost the same standards all over Japan. But the effects vary from region to region, since different regions have different natural and social conditions.
It is said that advertising of vegetables has little effect on the expansion of these demands so far. But recently, advertising is getting important for places of vegetable production, because many places of vegetable production intend to differentiate their products from the products of other places. This paper attempts to analyze the effect of advertising on vegetable demands. The vegetables are the onion and the potato which are advertised under “The Hokuren Program for Expanding Consumption of Onion and Potato.” The advertising variable which summarizes the influence of current and past advertising expenditures on demand is used to estimate the impact of advertising on demand. The Pascal distributed lags are used to account for the influence of current and past advertising expenditures. Both parameter estimates of advertising variables in onion and potato equations are statistically significant. But the effect of advertising on the onion demand is different from that on the potato demand. The onion demand is quickly affected by the advertising, whereas the potato demand is slowly affected. Using the estimated equations, the effects of advertising on their demands are valued by the simulation analysis. If the price elasticities of supply of these vegetables are less than 1.0, the increase in supplier surplus is greater than the advertising cost of this program.