In 1992 Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries framed New Policy emphasizing the upbringing of large scale farming, the development of sustainable agriculture and the improvement of rural infrastsucture. Importance was also placed in the New Policy on regional Development here and there. In this report the characteristics and expected impacts of the policy are summarized and the some dimensions of regional development and directions to be taken are outlined, namely, statues of the firms, relationships between land owership and land use, and so on. Finally some of research problems to be solved with focus on regional development are mentioned.
In Japan, various pioneers of the paddy field farm has grown recently. The relationship between the pioneers and regional agriculture has influenced various forms of farm business organization. This paper is a case study of that relationship. In this paper, the organization of regional agriculture means rural community, the group of land owners, agricultural cooperstives and municipality. I think today's trend of rural economy is in a process in which the logic of business permeates through farm household and rural community. In a broad way, we can divide this process into two courses. One of them is a course that the grown corporate business tries to cooperate with the nearby group farming based or the rural community. For example, Sakatani Nosan corporation in Toyama fertilizes the soil jointly with near-by farmers. And it expects to exchange a part of their farm works each other. This type is a conjunction of two business organizations at mutual requests. The other course is a organization which is formed by regional farm households and land owners carries on farming by itself, or constitutes a new farm. We can illustrate some cases, for example, an incorporation of the group farming based on the rural community, a corporation supported by the group farming or agricultural cooperatives. In these cases, there are regional systems in which expenses and risk are shared among farm households, land owners and corporate business. In consequence of the above two process, the corporative management connected with the regional agriculture has grown recently, It might be called “The regional corporative management”.
The New Policy Direction for Food, Agriculture and Rural Development in 1992 assigns a leading role to independent commercial farms and joint commercial farms in reorientating productive Japanese agriculture. But there are many rooms for group farming to be developed in the process of the reorganizing Japanese agriculture. Two types of group farming, one in contractual arrangement, another in communal arrangement, are recommended in this paper. They are described as contributing to retaining productive farm land in use and to providing independent commercial farms with prospective for farm consolidation of retained farm land in the future.
Agricultural establishments (holdings) in Japan can be classifild into five categories by the type of labor cooperation: (1) Family Farm 3, 834, 732 98.0% in 1990 (2) Family Farm With non-family workers 8, 247 0.1% (3) Company 3, 780 0.1% (4) Group Faming 65, 973 1.7% (i. communal production cooperatives based on rural community ii. production cooperatives in partnership between farmers) (5) Agricultural Cooperatives and publicsemi-public corporations 9, 808 0.3%. The total harvested area of rice in 1990 was 185 million hectares. Only 4.4% of the total was harvested in the farm cultivation trust as small as 6.9% in partial farm work trust of rice trasplanting, while drying and preparation in partial trust was 48%, raising of seeding 39″, cutting and threshing 18%, ploughing and soil preparation 12%, and pesticde application 21%, Thus, the develop ment of the rice contract faring has difference in those kinds of partial farm works. Classifying rice farming contractors into five categories as mentioned above, the fifth type, Agricultural Cooperatives and publicsemi-public corporations occupied about 80 to 90% of rice harvested area it the works of raising of and seeding, dryingpreparation and pesticides application. In the works of ploughingsoil preparation, cuttingthreshing and transplanting, Fanily Farms, Agricultural Cooperatives and Group Farming occupied 40%, 40% and 10% respectively. These different kinds of contractors have carried out their business in such strong competition with them in rural community that some public organizations should be necessary to control markets for contract farming service and promote reorganization of regional agriculture.