Liberalizing trade in world cereals market is neither cure-all, nor perilous: Environmental merits by agricultural trade liberalization would not be so large as indicated by GATT, because the intensive application of chemicals dues not only to the government farm protection, but to other factors such as population density. Increase in food import by industrial countries would make most developing countries better off. World grain market is not so unstable in a long run. But it is necessary to improve production and marketing technology of food in the regions where cereals production would be extended in accordance with an increase in the world price. The structure of world cereals market is not so competitive as an import country's private firms can enjoy the gains of free trade. The demand elasticity of price for Japanese delicious rices is not so high as to allow them to keep their superiority over imported rices. It is suggested that the government direct intervention in improving environment would be effective. The technological aid for farm peoduction countries would make the world grain market stable. Japan as an importer of food should keep a market power in the imperfect competitive world cereals market for a while. Farmers should compete with foreign producers by diversification of their products.
The objective of this paper is to clarify the new problems facing livestock markets under internationalization which was implemented in 1991 and will be carried out in 1995 on account of the UR conclusion. The results of the study can be summarized as follows: (1) Depending upon the UR conclusion, the import system of dairy products will be changed from the import quarter system to the tarriffication one, and beef import tariff rate will be brought down from 50.0% to 38.5%. (2) As a countermeasure for a fall in the price of calf, some cow-calf operators started shipping calves in the early stages to calf markets in order to ecconomize the production cost. (3) Because prices of Wagyu calves in small cow-calf operation districts have been falling sharply since the beef import liberalization, it is necessary to improve the present calf price stabilization scheme. (4) In order to cope with a shortage of labour in meat retail shops, it is essential to change auction forms and meat distribution forms from dress carcass ones to box meat ones. (5) Matching the new internationalization, livestock products price stabilization schemes and pork import systems should be improved in order to safeguard the maintenance of domestic production and distribution. (6) For the purpose of keeping up the domestic livestock production and distribution, famers and agricultural cooperatives ought to alter their production and distribution forms to value-added ones, and convert their production methods to environmentally conscious ones with the intention of preventing social criticism for water pollution and so forth.
The Milk Quota System was introduced in EC in 1984 in order to cut over production of milk and milk products and to solve the financial difficulties in the administrative budget. The system was determind to extend until 2000 when EC reformed the Common Agricultural Policy in 1992. During the period of 1984-91, the quantity of quota was reduced about six percents in average of member countries, while 15-16 percents in highly developed countries of dairy such as the United Kingdam, Netherlands and West-Germany. The Dairy Farmer Outgoes Scheme was published by the EC Commission in 1985, which was designed to encourage milk producers to cease production permanently. The purpose of this paper is to review the management of the milk quota system, and to percept the effect of the system to dairy farmers in selected member countries. The important results are summarized as follows; (1) the structual reform of milk production was accelerated by transfer of the quota from small and inefficient dairy farmers to large and efficient farmers. (2) this structual reform was achieved by dairy famers themselves without getting financial aids outside dairy industry.
The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of lifting the ban on import of fresh apples to Japan. Japan opened the domestic market of fresh apples for trade in 1971. However, for prevention of epidemics, the ban on import of fresh apples had been still effective up to 1993. During these years, Japanese consumers have come to prefer to large red apples with their sweet in proportion to their acidity. These apples, which have been treated as “high quality apples” in Japan, began to produce in 1970s, Until then, various types of high quality apples have been introduced to the market. The ban on import for reasons of the prevention of epidemics was removed to New Zealand in 1993 and to the United States in 1994. It is the urgent matter for us to estimate the effect of lifting the ban on import of fresh apples to Japan. At the same time, our experience of the apple consumption is required us to estimate the domestic demand for apples with taking account of their varieties and qualities. According to the result of the demand analysis, we got the fact that Japanese consumers have a tendency to distinguish among the characteristics of apples clearly. Therefore, if the very high quality apples like the upper class of Japanese “Fuji” are imported to Japan, the domestic market price of apples might fall down drastically. Furthermore, because the recently domestic supply amount of apples are nearly at their saturation level, the domestic apple farmers must suffer heavy damage from the imports. Fortunately for the domestic apple farmers, our first imports of fresh apples from New Zealand and the United States were not a menace to the domestic production. Almost all of the apples imported to Japan were relatively small and ranked as low qualities. The result of estimation implied quantitatively that the impact of lifting the ban on import of fresh apples was not so serious for the apple production in Japan.
Marketing of organic agricultural products has new movements recently. “TEIKEI”, which come from grass-root movement of the copartnership beween farmers and customers, has supported the market until now, and is coming to the turnig point now. Young generations gives some support to some marketing companies, which engages in organic agricultural products. Several local governments have created labelling system of organic products, and Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries set forth the “Guideline for organic Agricultural products”. Under these circumstances, marketing of organic farming products is growing nowadays. The points of this paper are as follows. (1) The influence of central government's “Guideline” on labelling system estalished by local governments. (2) Case study of labeling system which is been preparing by Tokyo local government and present situation of the market in Tokyo district as a background of the system.