In this paper, it is attempted to analyze how studies on farm management can contribute to support sustainable farm management in the scope of the regional agricultural development and stabilization of rural societies. Evaluations of the contribution of studies in the past and important areas for research in the future are also included. Our studies on farm management, in general, have been deeply related to economic analyses on the individual producer's target, structure, and behaviors. In addition, and as an application of those basic subjects, development of supporting systems for sustainable farm management has been explored. Regarding supports for the new comers, our studies are categorized into three sections: 1. To search for a major stream to be for the rural agriculture; 2. To develop a supporting system for sustainable farm management in the society; and 3. To find possible prosperous means and to organize the new producers into interim groups aiming efficient production by sustainable farm management. In these categories, we have tried to solve problems of the producers through academic studies. Now, we are facing the challenges to further develop our academia under the roles such as: 1. To support the new rural society which is now stable with more aged people; 2. To secure rural societies; 3. To maintain the minimum size of agriculture as an industry; 4. To materialize protection systems for natural resources and the environment; 5. To secure and enhance productivity and wholesome power of agriculture; 6. To reorganize sustainable farm management and to reestablish their production means; 7. To develop appropriate interim groups; and 8. To develop a system to organically communicate with each other among the private, interim and governmental sectors. Viewing those roles for the future, our studies will need to be continued.
The purpose of this paper is to examine if marketing studies since '50s have bee useful for the development of regional agriculture in Japan. In order to achieve the purpose, this paper discusses the following three points: Firstly, whether the results of marketing studies have served to settle on marketing strategies of production districts (regional agriculture) or not. Secondly, whether they have promoted the policies favorable to production districts (regional agriculture) or not. Thirdly, whether they have showed the new marketing strategies and new policies or not. As a result of these examination, it becomes clear that marketing studies have been useful fully for regional agriculture.
A major determinant of rural agricultural development is the effectiveness of technology research. Through research, the productivity of exisisting resources is increased, new higher-productivity inputs and ways of producing food are generated, and new or improved institutional arrangements are designed. Examples of research outputs in natural sciences include higher-yielding plant varieties, better methods for controlling insects and diseases, mechanical technologies. On the other side, examples of research outputs in social sciences include econometric analysis of agricultural technology progress, economic analysis of mechanized farming structure, economic evaluation for dissemination of farm mechanization. Research creates the potential for increased agricultural production, reduced pressure on the natural resource base, encouraged rural society, and many other positive results. Especially, new technology innovations for hobby farming or part-time farming have a good chance of rural agricultural development. In near future, three technology innovations (environmental conservation technologies, modern biotechnologies, information technologies) are expected to accelerate the progress of rural agricultural productivities.
The regional agricultural policy by the local autonomy has been in effect from the latter half of the 1970's in Japan. In this paper, the followings are discussed: 1) the definition of the regional agricultural policy, 2) the actual state of the regional agricultural policy in Japan, 3) the direction and isuues of the regional agricultural policy in the near future, 4) the issues of research activities of the regional agricultural policy. Under the lack in financial resoureces and administrative staffs with high ability of the local autnomies, the regional agricultural policy has benn under certain restrictions in Japan. In the near future, it will be very important.
This article aims at examining the characteristics and development of structural policy which started to implement widely after the 1961 Agricultural Basic Law with keeping the relationship to regional agriculture in view. The Agricultural Basic Law mentioned three principle policies, production policy, price policy and structural policy, which the national government had to solve. The structural policy of three policies was given a status as a key one so as to accomplish balance of income through the improvement of productivity. The main part in the structural policy was agricultural land mobilization policy, which aims at consolidation of agricultural land to the farmers wishing to enlarge their farm holding. The transfer of rights on agricultural land after 1970's shifted from transfer of ownership to lease, and the national government encouraged to diffuse the idea of lease. At local government, the promotion of lease was done through the assistance of the project members in the local government and they made the most of the function of rural community. The agricultural land mobilization policy placed an emphasis on securing borrowers than finding lender owing to the current of the borrowers' market. In the Basic Law on Food, Agriculture and Rural Areas, the goal of structural policy is ‘establishment of desirable agricultural structure’ which means that efficient and stable farm management covers most of agricultural production. But the position of structural policy under the decline of the recent circumstance of agriculture has been changed, and at the same time structural policy had been shifted to management policy.
After Law of Orientation of Agriculture, Selective enlargement of Agricultural products depended on Price Policy and Import control of Agricultural products. But, with economic development, Import Liberalization of Agricultural products has expanded and number of Import control of Agricultural products has been reduced. Import Liberalization of Agricultural products and tarffication, efficient Agricultural protect policy could not have arranged and Food self-supporting ratio has decreased. That chief factor is that Law of Orientation of Agriculture was measure to counter High economic growth and Import Liberalization from Agriculture. And tariff rate of Agricultural products decided very low on the 1961's tariff schedule. Beside, most of Sturdy about Price Policy and Price theory of Agricultural products proved that Political Price of Agricutural products was lower than production cost, and was insufficient to Sturdy about Farm's incom Stabilization Ststem. Under Import Liberalization of Agricultural products and tarffication, for promting Agricultural total production and Agricultural protect, Price Stabilization Policy would be turned to Farm's incom Stabilization Ststem. S
The purposes of this study are as follows (1) to evaluate contributions for the development of agriculture and a community in a rural area by the rural sociological study in the period of 50 years after The World War II, and (2) to illustrate the perspective of the rural sociological study in the future. These subjects are discussed basically on resources' utilization, conservation and management in a rural area. One of the important characteristics with resources' utilization, conservation and management in a rural area is that non-market systems play important roles. Therefore, it is very important how we could make designs of social systems with combining market and non-market systems for efficient utilization and allocation on rural resources to achieve the development of agriculture and a community. In the domain of a non-market system, the community organizations in a rural area will take important parts. We evaluate the above mentioned contributions by the rural sociological study respectively at three periodical parts (the first period: 1950-1970, the second period 1970-1990, the third period: 1990-2000). The reason of introducing three periodical parts is the differences between main purposes for resources' utilization in each periodical part. The excellent results cleared up by the rural sociological study are as follows; (1) we can not rely only on the market system, but also (2) we should recognize important roles of the community organizations from the stand point of reduction of transaction costs for achieving efficient resources' utilization. On the other hand, the remained problem is that large part of the rural sociological study describe only the state of affairs in a rural area with lack of sufficient theoretical considerations. The rural sociological study should move to the next higher step being able to make designs for desirable social systems to achieve efficient resources' utilization, conservation and management. This should be done by comparison of each managing cost by different types of social systems.
Recentry, the role of a village has been becoming more important factor for continuation of rural district. Major results in this paper are described that follows: First, I made clear the main study thema and it's social factor of rural sociology after the second war. In this process the role of village was considered after 1975 for it was necessary to carry out the harmonized agricultural policy with a individual village. Second, I made clear the caracteristic of a village fated period after 1985 and the progress of a study on village. The fate of village started after 1985 for death of the old agricultural successor in mountainous areas and it was possible to explain a continuance of farmer by new study of a side job farmer, of a familly in rural district and of a rural organization. Third, I made clear it was very important to organized a group farming based on the village as a carryer for supporting a farm management and a village function. The formation factors of this organization are the existence of agricultural opelators need not do it as a full-time farmer and the agricultural land conditions are tidied up and there is no agricultural land except a resident. The development factors of this organization are able to get large scale economical merits, to be more efficient oranization as a corporation and to get agricultural successors.
In studies of the “Rural Problem”, few have been focused on “a rural woman” up to late years. And most of description and analysis about women have been included in “an industrial issue”. After International Women's Year, studies related to rural women have been increased. In studies of the “Rural Problem”, gender analysis is new method. Therefore the gender statistics of agriculture, forestry and fisheries are requested for basic studies. In the reevaluation of rural women, it still includes the reproductive sex and mother role in its background. Looking from a viewpoint of gender is also to reconsider the meaning of “a man”. And it is also to reevaluate various “workers” who have been removed out as “non basic worker”.