Japanese agricultural studies in Africa began in the 1960's when most of the African countries became independent. However in only forty years these studies have accumulated many field research papers and acquired considerable importance in Japanese agricultural studies. By the World Bank in 1980's the structural adjustment policies introduced in Africa and the political and economic situation of Africa have changed dramatically. African societies were transformed drastically. In the 1990's, Japanese agricultural studies in Africa also changed to focus on the study of the relationship between village level studies and world wide economy. Another two aspects were added in the 1990's, namely the multi-disciplinary studies of African agriculture and studies of the relationship between agriculture and human society. The author points out three important issues in the future of Japanese agricultural studies in Africa. The first one is that Japanese agricultural studies have a responsibility to contribute to the feeding of Africa and the improvement in African agricultural studies. The second one is that agricultural studies in Africa contribute to the rethinking of Japanese agricultural studies from the viewpoint of the relationship between humans and their environment. For example recent studies have focused on small holder agriculture, the meaning of modern technology, and new ways of thinking about productivity. The final one is that the study of global views of food production based on the insights gained by long term field work at the village level which will be needed in the future.
Regional agricultural research can be defined as a study of agricultural development issues in a particular region, which falls at the intermediate level between the nation and the individual farmers. Actual coverage of regional agriculture often varies according to the research objective. This paper aimed at discussing the concepts of agriculture and regional agriculture, and reviewing research trends by Japanese scholars in the field of regional agricultural research in Southeast Asia. Research results prior to 1994 could be categorized into three fields: increased food production and technology, rural poverty, and agricultural diversification and commercialization. It became clear that significant contributions were made by Japanese agricultural economists in all these fields of study in relation to agricultural development in Southeast Asia. However, there were many important issues which remained to be further studied, one of them being economic and technological research on sustainable agriculture. In the second half of the 1990s, the volume of agricultural research by Japanese scholars appeared to have greatly increased in the region, especially in the socialist countries, reflecting their open-door policy. Studies on sustainable agriculture from both natural and social science viewpoints have also increased. The paper also took up methodological issues in regional agricultural research. In particular, two methods, village studies and field science, were discussed in detail. Village studies have been argued as a very useful method for in-depth understanding of agriculture in a particular area, but they appear to show a decreasing trend in the recent years. It was suggested that more constructive approaches could be adopted in village studies. Meantime, field science was considered to be a new direction in agricultural research, which would attempt to integrate research findings of various agricultural disciplines in a particular area. The main problem is how to integrate these results, and the paper argued for the need of a clear and common objective of agricultural development promotion, rather than individual scientific contributions, as the goal of multi-disciplinary agricultural research.
The principal change in recent years has been a decline of the primary industries and a growth of the service industries in the mountainous region. Especially, a growth of the tourism industries has been major components for such economic restructuring. This paper examines the economic impacts of tourism on a mountainous region in Nara Prefecture by Input-Output evaluation. The Generation of Regional Input-Output Tables technique is applied to estimate Input-Output table for the region. The results are following. The first is that economic impacts are mainly through the direct effect, inconsequentially through the indirect effect. Because the industries in the region are small scale and poor diversity, backward linkages of the tourism industries with the rest of the industries are weak. The second is that the Japanese guesthouse (providing bed and meals in private house) staying style tourism creates greater income and employment than other style tourism (hotel staying, camping, one-day trip). Because the guesthouse business have stronger backward linkages, and yield more value-added.