Recently, with the deepening of agricultural structure adjustment, the peasants have a higher demand for capital. On the other hand, the Rural Credit Co-operatives (RCCs), as the peasants' co-operative financial organization, tend to worsen their management due to their non-agricultural crediting direction. One of the main focuses of present day research is how to extricate the RCCs out of this difficult situation through inner management reform. Up to now, numerous papers have elaborated on how to better the credit structure and service quality so as to adapt them to the agricultural structure reform. This paper, based on the managers' conduct theory, makes an analysis of the Joint RCCs in T city, Jilin Province, China, which has already achieved some degree of progress in co-operative management reform, and draws its conclusions as follows: (1) The managers have a deep understanding of the management notion of co-operative organizations and have achieved some progress by carrying it out through the whole management reform, thus helping the peasants gradually realize that the RCCs are their own banks. (2) Based on the above-mentioned notion, the managers have set up some organizations according to the peasants' demands and carry out democratic management based on co-operation principles, which proves to be quite effective though some deficiencies still exist. (3) Because of these reforms, bad loans have been decreasing and the contacts between the RCCs and the peasants have become much closer. The agricultural structure adjustment has thus been promoted and the RCCs have become the main force in rural finance.
This paper deals with some of the important factors of sales depression in the farmers' direct marketing to consumers using the Internet. The farmers were limited to rice growers. As research methodology, we sent questionnaires by e-mail. In addition, we employed multivariate regression analysis using the data of the questionnaire survey to clarify the factors of dull sales. From the existing research we expected that there would be two advantages and two problems of farmers' direct marketing using the Internet. The advantages are the decrease in search cost and the increase of communication between farmers and consumers. The problems are high risk with payment and little possibility that consumers will find the farmers' homepages. The results of our research support these views. However, the above problems alone are not the main causes of dull sales. The main causes of dull sales were identified with the problems of marketing-mix. As clarified by our analysis on marketing-mix in the farmers' direct marketing using the Internet, the kind of promotion used by most farmers has weak points. There is not enough information about the products that the consumer needs, in spite of the high price of the product. That is, the causes of dull sales are the inappropriate selection of the elements of the marketing-mix, and the lack of consistency between those elements.
Many previous studies have explicated the behavior of the people of peasant societies in Southeast Asia by adopting one of the two well known models, either the “moral economy” conceived by James C. Scott or the “political economy” by Samuel L. Popkin. The purpose of this paper is to provide an economical and anthropological discussion on the process of the introduction of coffee cultivation by the indigenous peasants of Guatemala. This paper has chosen the case of the people of San Pedro La Laguna, Sololá province, on the western highland of Guatemala. In chapter 1, as a theoretical position to analyze the case the dispute between “moral economy” and “political economy” is applied to the Guatemalan situation. Also discussed is the “closed corporate peasant community” concept by Eric Wolf, compared to the concept of “penny capitalism” conceived by Sol Tax concerning Panajachel village of Guatemala. In chapter 2, the process of coffee introduction in San Pedro is investigated, and the current situation of this village is presented. In chapter 3, five local habitants give their comments as to what extent their cultivation is based on the reason that “coffee cultivation brings profits”. In the final chapter, the opposing views are discussed and interpreted based on their comments.