Rice per capita consumption (PCRC) in Asian countries is still decreasing. Not only has it decreased from 160kg to 50kg in Taiwan and from 120kg to 65kg in Japan during the last four decades, the important point to note is that the decline in PCRC in those countries has yet to stop. Now, with the economy booming in giant countries such as China and India, their PCRC are steadily declining. Assuming this trend continues in Asia, the total consumption by 2050 will be at the most only at 535 million MT, which is substantially lower than what was estimated earlier. If the decreasing rates were to accelerate threefold, the global total consumption of rice would not increase at all from the current level. It is important for Japan to assist the other Asian nations to conduct analysis on the rice consumption situation and to explore possible means to develop viable markets for rice. In the developing countries of Asia, researchers are still fully engaged on the production side, but the importance of studies on rice demand for those countries is obvious. In conjunction with other Asian countries, Japan needs to take the lead to rescue the world's most efficient and magnificent production of rice in Asia. Otherwise, there will be a glut in the rice supply and farmers will suffer due to the depressed market prices in the future. Meanwhile, the changing diets in Asia should be monitored closely, and each government should develop their ideal diet taking into consideration domestic food production. The ODA programs provided by Japan may need to be re-examined, so that the aid can cover the assistance needed to establish the ideal diet for each recipient country.
The present paper introduces the results of a question-naire survey on the eating habits and shokuiku in Aizubange town, Fukushima prefecture. The current state of the residents' eating habits and one potential meaning of shokuiku were examined. It was clear from the results of the survey that one problem of childrens food is unbalanced diet and manners, and that in eating habits in daily life, family have good relations, but there is no time for them to refrain the use of the processed food and dining out. It was pointed out that the promotion of shokuiku in the future depends on cooperation in the region, today when the educational ability of food by the family is decreasing. The potential benefits expected from the results of the factor analysis of shokuiku can be consolidated around the following three points: to regenerate Japanese agriculture, to decrease diseases related to eating habits, and to promote healthy body and mind.
This study discusses the motivational factors of applying excessive amounts of fertilizer by farmers producing chrysanthemum in greenhouse production in the Atsumi region of Aichi Prefecture, with particular emphasis on the characteristics of the farmers. The results indicate that farmers who applied large amounts of nitrogen fertilizer (1.5 times more than Aichi Prefecture's fertilizer fixed amount) were mainly attempting to improve the quality of the product and increase the crop yield. While their practices may have been the result of upgraded agricultural management, they did not always consider the environmental degradation caused by their actions. Farmers who applied a medium-large amount of nitrogen fertilizer (which ranges from more than 1.0 times to less than 1.5 times as per the Aichi Prefecture's fertilizer guidelines) had less knowledge of advanced technologies and environmental preservation issues, and tended to apply fertilizer based mainly on past experience. In addition, the following practices used by farmers who applied less nitrogen than the Aichi Prefecture guidelines are suggested as possible methods to reduce excessive fertilizer application on chrysanthemum: 1) repetition of cultivation and application of compost with a low rate of nitrogen, such as “coconut fiber”; 2) usage of drip irrigation fertilizer and applying additional applications according to growth rates; and 3) application of fertilizers with particular reference to soil characteristics.
Japanese agriculture is facing a critical situation nowadays, with the share of part-time farmers in total farm labor force increasing and the food self-support ratio declining. Some high-productivity farms have expanded their agricultural land in an attempt to increase productivity in order to survive in the competitive marketplace. The purpose of this research is to empirically analyze the determinants of growth in agricultural income per farm, agricultural dependency, that is, the share of agricultural income in total farm income, and agricultural land per farm, using the cross section data of Japanese prefectures, Simultaneous equations models are established with due consideration to the interdependence of the variables. According to the results, agricultural dependency and agricultural research play an important role for agricultural growth. Agricultural research can promote more growth in an area with low agricultural productivity. Agricultural expenditure of the government and exchanging labor force among farms increase agricultural dependency, and contribute to expanding agricultural land. Higher agricultural land price and larger leftover farmland can prevent farmers from expanding farmland. Increasing elderly population in agricultural farms can lower agricultural growth, and expanding agricultural land will be difficult in the forest area. However, agriculture can be considered as an important job opportunity for those in the forest area and for the elderly.