Rural households in developing countries are often faced with unpredictable shocks to their economy which maketheir flow of income unstable. A number of studies in recent literature investigate the consumption smoothing mechanisms through “social network”. However, these studies have focused on the “social network” formed through reciprocal bilateral relationships although in reality,the gifts and loans through other types of relationships including remittance from migrants and donations from the village community also contribute to risk-pooling of rural households. This paper investigates how rural households deal with such shocks, using data collected from Cambodia. We show that gifts and zero interest loans can mitigate the negative impact of shocks such as illness, injury, and death of family member on household economy not only through reciprocal bilateral relations but through other types of relationships. We also show that rural households are more likely to sell their assets when they are faced with these shocks. These findings differ from those of the existing literature.
This study was aimed at clarifying the realities and attributes of people who are related to direct sales activities and processing activities, which are factors in the development and continuance in economically diversified rural areas. It is necessary to have senior citizens who use the processing organization and residents who work in the economically diversified activities for the management of the processing activity. From the case A processing activity, it is pointed out that many organization in the rural area where each member of the the processing organization participates has a role to supply the processing organization with manpower and it is necessary to raise these organizations for the succession of the processing organization’s technology.
At present, green tourism has reached the stage of being a business stage. When we think about green tourism as a business, an issue that arises is whether the supply side can provide services that harmonize with various demands. This study aims to clarify demand trends in green tourism by using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process). For this purpose, a questionnaire survey was administered to the bus tour visitors of Niyodogawa-cho, Kochi. Using AHP, this study weighs the criteria based on the report “Multifunctionality of Forest” issued by the Science Council of Japan. The results revealed that the following criteria are preferred in sequence: “scenery/landscape”, “contact with nature”, “traditional culture”, “interaction with the local people”, and “relaxation”. Furthermore, by classifying these visitors into two types, namely, first visitors and repeaters (those who have visited Niyodogawa-cho more than twice), the following difference is observed in the order of preferences for “relaxation” and “interaction with the local people”. Repeaters want to spend time relaxing rather than interacting with the local people.
This paper investigates why the Alaska Natives wanted the corporation system of landownership when Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971 was legislated. For this purpose, I refer to Barry Jackson who contributed to and influenced the draft of this act. This study clarified the following: The Alaska Natives adopted the corporation system, not the allotment or reservation (trust) system. The corporation system had been proposed since around 1910 for forest conservation in the Indian reservations in the lower 48 states. Jackson imported this idea into the draft. The Alaska Natives preferred communal landownership because they wanted to maintain their economic independence. Further, they also wished to be politically independ ent of the federal government. However, in reality, the geographical area they communally occupied was the same as a reservation. The difference was that the corporations permitted self-determination. The Alaska Natives did not want to be under the control of the federal government.
This paper investigates the application range of agricultural accounting. First, the accounting policies in grape cultivation and wine manufacturing are categorized into types. Second, a case study is conducted to discuss the categories. Third, the reasons for their differences are discussed. The conclusions of this paper are as follows. First, there is a difference in accounting processing between winemaking and viticulture. Winemakers apply full costing to winemaking but not to viticulture. Second, winemakers apply full costing to winemaking because 1)winemaking takes more than one year, 2)wines keep for a long time, 3)tax accounting claims full costing, 4) managers have weak incentives to reduce inventory.
The rapid development of dairy sector in Inner Mongolia is facing various challenges since 2007 as the feed price increased and melamine incident occurred in 2008. This paper investigates the economic state of family dairy farms and the impact of the melamine incident on them by using a field survey in a suburban area of Inner Mongolia. The results suggest that the low income of raising cows has become more and more obvious, which has seriously influenced the sustainable development of cow husbandry industry. To effectively promote the development of the dairy industry, the following measures should be taken: increasing the number of dairy cattle, implementing means to increase the milk yield, and improving the education level of dairy farmers.
This paper discusses the trend of agricultural land valuation and land rental in the northeast, by taking Tsuruoka in Yamagata province as an example. Analyses are made of the trend in agricultural land transfers between land buyer and seller. In addition, it is seen that government and agriculture cooperatives have used successful methods to maintain the value of local agricultural land during the continued decline in land prices. The paper also reports research on the preservation and fluidization of agricultural land according to the impact of local agriculture and declining land prices.
This study aims to clarify the ownership and the land use realities of farmland with nonresident landowners. Generally, such landowners impede the effective utilization of farmland and are a factor that influences cultivators to abandon the land. Analyzed of the survey result in the past and I investigated the questionnaire survey. Through this survey, we ascertained the awareness among absentee landowners and farmers, summarized the factors and challenges related to the management of farmland with absentee landowners, and summarized the ways in which necessary support can be extended to farmers. The results of the survey point out the necessary that the problem to manage farmland is reporting to join owners and farmers together of the farmland and to create new farmland systems of administration, make ofsystem that nonresident landowner contribute to the area.
This study takes Iwamura district as a case study area to examine how the traditional governancesystems of local organizations such as neighborhood associations and local government interventions influence theestablishment and functions of a new governing institution, the Machidzukuri council. This council was established as a coalition of existing community organizations, which inherited the existing organizational decision-making process. In particular, after the establishment of the council, the government of Ena continued to subsidize community organizations even after being subordinated by the council, which seemed to maintain the traditional governing structure instead of helping the council embrace the roles played by those traditional organizations. In order to improve the situation, we contend that the council should build a shared vision by listening to the voices of community organizations so that they can be effectively coordinated under the new institution. The government of Ena should also be careful when subsidizing community o rganizations in order to avoidimpeding the effective functioning of the council.
This study aims to determine trends in nonprofit organizations (NPOs) engaged in rural activities. By interviewing the members of six NPOs in Suzu city, Ishikawa prefecture, and analyzing their financial data, this paper examines the factors related to the sustainability of these NPOs’activities. The results showed that certain activists concurrently served as board members of multiple NPOs. Moreover, the government’s employment-boosting program played an important part in providing financial support to some NPOs.
Recently, the liquidation of farmland has become mandatory in Chinase villages. However, the farmland property right is a contracted management right. Therefore, from the viewpoint of economics, the validity of the latter right must be determined for the land to be liquidated. We conclude the following: (1) The contracted management right has been revised to encourage farmers to invest more, by expanding the scope of residual claims. (2) Partial compensation under eminent domain certifies the entitlement of the contracted management right. This measure restrains excessive investment and expropriation by farmers and the government respectively. (3) In the case of the Hunan province, the farmers perceived the establishment of land property rights to be a precursor to the liquidation of their farmland.
In this research, using the examples of Beijing Huairou District’s Guandi and Beigou villages, the organization and operation of farmers’cooperatives and limited liability companies developing rural tourism are identified, and the way these efforts affect local social systems and residents’lives is examined on the basis of numerous on-site investigations. The analysis results show that Guandi’s farmers’cooperative enhances each Nongjiale’s ability and the organizational quality connecting them and that Beigou’s limited liability companies function like village municipal corporations, strongly emphasizing venture activities. Furthermore, it was clearly evident that the appropriate human resources were available for each village’s operation of these public corporations and that their establishment made orderly regional development possible. Finally, a comparison of both regions’rural tourism shows that tourism is influenced by factors such as their establishment goals, their key characteristics, the region’s tourist appeal, residents’opinions and rural tourism participation, and the rate of Nongjiale’s development.
In the Kyoto-Tango areas, many families prepare “Tango Barazushi,” a traditional regional delicacy, even today.This study examined the current situation of this heritage, considering the future directions and anticipated problems. The ingredients and forms of this delicacy have changed over time; in particular, canned bonitos replaced roasted ones, and hard-pressed double-decker formation replaced soft-pressed one-layered type. The mode of succession also changed, expanding to more social preparations than before. At present, the heritage is transmitted in not only individual families but also schools and other socio-educational institutions. With social changes, regional cuisines inevitably change, but their core elements should be retained. This element must provide a clear profile on local cuisines in general.
Networking multiple sectors is important for rural development. This paper draws on a case study of the Northern Rural Network (NRN) founded by the Centre for Rural Economy at Newcastle University, northeast England, in 2000. This network wasestablished with the aim of bringing together researchers and practitioners to share knowledge about pertinent issues in rural development within neo-endogenous approaches. Through participant observation and interviews of the managers of this network, this study shows that the NRN has successfully created an active learning network and substantial value in terms of knowledge transfer. Although the cost and the qualty of the university’s engagement from an academic point of viewsremaincommon problems, this type of network should be created in rural areas in order to promote rural development in Japan and worldwide.
The research in this paper has two goals. One is to examine the finance circulation of Japan’s household economy based on an analysis of finance circulation. The other is to present the deviation factor between gross income and cashflow with regard to the income activity sector of the household economy. The results of this analysis are stated below. First, we focus on the finance circulation. The household expenditure rate of the household economy, as finance, is subject to annual increase. Household and operation activities balance out. Then, the results concerning the factors of deviation in expansion and reduction are given.The expansion and reduction periods of the deviation depend on the investment activity of the businesses. This investment activity is described by considering the macro environment. The investment activities in this paper refer to the purchase and expenditure of fixed assets and the fixed amount deposits.
This study aims to reveal the actual condition and functions of the mentoring program for novice farmers.We carried out an interview survey of both mentors (senior farmers) and mentees (novices) in the program conducted by JA Yasato in Ibaraki Prefecture, Ishioka City. We analyzed the data by using the modified grounded theory approach. The analysis revealed that mentoring programs like the one conducted by JA Yasato have the following functions. (1) They help mentees acquire skills and learn about technologies related to agricul tural management and also offer them an opportunity to consult mentors, which assuages the concerns the mentees have at the beginning of their careers. (2) The act of “teaching” also provides mentors good opportunities to enhance their skills and gain valuable experience. (3) Through the program, the relationships between mentors and mentees change from the mentoring relationships to the friendships.
The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of low calorie content in Japanese consumers’rice purchasing decisions. The Choice Modeling (Random Parameter Logit Model) is used to quantify the welfarechange associated with the change in the level of low calorie content label, local origin label, price attributes for a sample of Japanese consumers taken in March 2009. The consumer has a positive perception of local origin label. The average evaluation of the low calorie content attribute is negative (−116 yen/5 kg). However, half of samples have a positive perception of low calorie content. Their willingness to pay for low calorie content range from 800 to 900 yen/5 kg. The results suggests that latent demand for low calorie labeled rice is limited.
This study describes consumer assessments of the media used in online supermarkets. (1)Online supermarkets, offering a large selection of food products, allow consumers to select products on websites, making page layout and site usability extremely important. (2)A comparison of shoppers and non-shoppers indicates differences in the details of the usability they seek.Shoppers prioritize the rapidity of the product search whereas non-shoppers emphasize ease of viewing.Shoppers value illustrated product information that allows instant decision-making while non-shoppers appreciate written product information that helps reduce the anxiety of being unable to touch the products.
This study examines Nagano Prefecture (Ueda area) as a major ginseng production center and reveals
conditions and issues associated with ginseng marketing. Nagano Prefecture has been increasing its sales of red ginseng in domestic markets through its basic
strategy of emphasizing the production and processing of red ginseng cultivated in 5 to 6 years, led primarily
by JA. Through these efforts, primary-processed
products were sold using the channel strategy of focusing on
herbal medicine stores that allow in-store demonstrations. Secondary-processed products were sold using
product diversification and channel strategies targeting the commercial-use market. However, future marketing activities for all medicinal
products using the strengths of the general
agricultural cooperative will also be necessary.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the present status of sales to China by Japanese food enterprises. The data are based on the results of fieldwork in Shangdong Province, China. The findings are the following: 1)Japanese food enterprises attained success, guaranteed their safety, created product differentiation, and energized their sales. 2)Units devoted to generalizing sales were installed in the companies, focusing on selling in the big cities.Foreign-affiliated firms, such as one particular Japanese company, traded especially vigorously in the city centers.
Forest management in Japan needs citizen collaboration under the current difficult circumstances. This paper analyzes the collaborative activities of six watershed forest committees in Shiga Prefecture. We conducted hearing research on the committee secretariats and a questionnaire survey among participants of the committees and found that the overall satisfaction levels were high among the participants and that the characteristics and styles of the committees influenced the evaluation levels reported by the respondents about committeeactivities. Specifically, the distinctive activities of the committee, the assignment of specific roles to members, and strong leadership most stronglyinfluenced the evaluations.
In several residential areas, people are facing problems in shopping owing to the lack of means of transportation and facilities. However, hilly and mountainous areas in which many elderly residents with the disadvantage of shopping are holding subjects, such as the continuity of a support business. This report focused on cooperatives whose associates share a responsibility in continuing business ventures. The present condition of the people at a disadvantage in shopping in hilly and mountainous areas was clarified by a survey. The questionnaires were distributed to the customers of the individual door-to-door delivery business of Okayama Copland, and the users of the Y-shop, Kamiminochi branch of JA Hiroshima City.Further, the survey results indicated that cooperatives are engaging in the development of long-term support for people at a disadvantage in shopping in hilly and mountainous areas.
This paper clarifies the features of large-scale vegetable farms and related industries in California. Vegetable farming in California is remarkable for its concentration on the large-scale farm. As many of the large-scalefarms are supported by vegetable production and marketing-related companies, there are many related companies in the area. Their business features are various: some are large and others are small; some are subsidiaries and others are invested jointly by large-scale farms. This paper discusses the industrial cluster formed by the large-scale vegetable farms and their related companies.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of personnel management in community-based farming corporations. We classify corporations into two types on the basis of the purpose of employment. In the first type of corporations, the purpose of employment is to complement the labor force. This type is characterized bysimple personnel management that involves discovering and securing labor force. In the second type of corporations, the purpose of employment is to develop a successor, and is characterized by that the following: selecting successors, making employees learn business sense, providing adequateremuneration to promising candidates, and appropriately assigning working hours and holidays.
In Hokuriku district, large areas of paddy fields can be classified as heavy clay soil . In heavy clay soils, wet damage inhibits barley and soybean production, and disrupts the 2 year, 3-crop rotation system (rice-barley-soybean). This paper evaluates the effect of the introduction of Rotary Tilling and Ridges-Making Implement, developed by the Hokuriku Research Center, on the crop rotation system. It is found that the introduction of the above implement alleviates the damage, and increases barley and soybean yields. The implement also improves work efficiency by reducing some work processes prior to soybean seeding. As a result, the introduction of this can increase agricultural income and land-utilization ratio under the 2 year, 3-crop rotation system.
With the sluggish growth in the national food industry caused by the low manufacturing value added, it is important to understand real demand, for this industry to be revitalized. This paper reports the results of a survey on the needs of and challenges faced by the primary manufacturers of primary food-processing products. The results showed that food industry can best cater to the actual demand by focusing on the following needs: quality and convenience of use, visible indication of the presence of functional nutrients, and proof of domestic or local origin. In addition, the most intense potential needs of the manufacturers are, in the following order, to visibly indicate the presence of functional nutrients, reduce costs, cater to the needs of diverse customers, increase added value, and improve technology.
In recent years, initiatives for the conservation of accessible natural resources have increased, but it is still difficult to make many inhabitants recognize their value and importance, which have often not been made clearbecause of the focus given to endanger ed species and natural monument. The purpose of this study is to examine thecurrent conservation direction by clarifying theinhabitant evaluation structure concerning accessible natural resources. The main conclusions are as following; old inhabitants evaluate them from experiences of having become familiar with Ayumodoki, while new inhabitants value them based on recognitions of the ecosystem and endangered species.