We describe the characteristics of 3 MPAs around the Lagonoy Gulf in Bicol Region, the Philippines. We analyze and compare them from the viewpoint of the “Cost of Commons.” We find that 1) in order to manage an MPA properly, it is important that it is sized and shaped appropriately, 2) community-based management is effective, because fisherfolk can help monitor the MPA, 3) while state-management enjoys the advantages of budget availability and partnership between the police and government, it is disadvantageous due to the lack of partnership with the local people, and 4) new MPA management that combines the merits of both management approaches is being tried in Tabaco and Atulayan.
We analyzed the factors involved in some Japanese adults missing breakfast. We focused on the differences in the response rates by age and used weights. We also drew a path diagram and analyzed the factors using an ordered logistic regression. Our results indicate that four factors play a role in adults missing breakfast: (1) the evening meal hour, (2) lack of time for having breakfast, (3) lack of interest in the role of nutrition in maintaining good health, and (4) living alone.
This study examined the structure and function of human networks formed by female farmers-cum-entrepreneurs who process and sell their individual agricultural products in Miyagi Pref. and Shiga Pref. Female farmers-cum-entrepreneurs with extensive experience in farming acquire distribution channels and management resources through their existing networks. Young female farmers-cum-entrepreneurs, who are new to farming, develop such channels and resources (including farming technology) useful to their farmlands by building networks from scratch. This study observed the minimum effective size of such a network. It was found that existing networks were not sufficient to develop the requisite network of distribution channels and management resources to support business expansion. Thus, it can be argued that forming new networks is more effective to enable business expansion.
This study classifies the rural livelihoods of Tamil households in post-conflict northern Sri Lanka and identifies characteristics unique to them. Livelihood capital indicators are calculated in order to understand the current situation of household livelihoods. The results of factor analysis and cluster analysis show that the rural livelihoods of Tamil households in the area can be divided into six types, each of which can be explained by the degree of two factors, the social capital factor and the physical capital factor.
Formal financial institutions for poverty alleviation may have negative impacts on the viability of existing informal financial institutions. Conversely, the existence of informal institutions may mitigate the effect of formal institutions on poverty alleviation. This paper aims to test these hypotheses for financial institutions in rural Cambodia. We examine the dynamic changes in borrowing from formal and informal institutions using a panel data of households. We also investigate whether borrowing from micro-finance institutions has a significant effect on borrowing and receiving gifts of money from relatives and friends and vice versa by applying an econometric model to the cross-sectional data of households. The results of the analyses imply that although a trade-off relationship between the borrowings from formal and informal institutions exists, it is relatively small, and the increase of borrowings from both sources offsets the negative impact by a wide margin.