The objective of this paper is to shed empirical light on spatial characteristics of land fragmentation (LF) and the nexus between LF and the geographical or social conditions of farmers. We collected data from the “Agricultural Land Information System,” cadastral data from three cities in Hyogo Prefecture, and “Plot Polygon” data from MAFF. We then processed these data and calculated LF indices that contain the average plot size, Simpson index, maximum distance between plots, and standard distance between plots. Using LF indices, we firstly examined the spatial autocorrelation of LF using Moran’s I. In addition, we applied the spatial autoregressive model to investigate the correlation between LF and rural community conditions. The main results of our analysis are as follows. Firstly, the calculated Moran’s I showed that all LF indices have spatial autocorrelation. This implies that there were strategic interactions between farmers at the time of farmland accumulation. Secondly, spatial econometric analysis considering autocorrelation of LF has revealed that geographical conditions such as the steepness of land and average plot size significantly correlated to LF. On the other hand, we could find little evidence of correlations between LF and social conditions such as the number of farmers or the number of meetings in rural communities.
The basic law established by the central government recommends local governments to promote urban agriculture through urban farmers. Higashi-Osaka City is working on its own measures through its “Farm Mileage2 Campaign” (FM), to promote urban agriculture. The following results were obtained by involving food business operators to jointly develop agricultural products in the city. First, the residential areas of consumers preferring ethical foods have expanded based on the shipping destinations of food business operators. Second, events based on the philosophy of the FM movement so that the initiative will not be a mere leisure activity but a place for food and agriculture education that fosters an understanding of urban agriculture. Thirdly, many urban residents want near their homes.
Recently, agricultural production utilizing information communication technology (ICT) has been attracting attention. This study clarifies the present situation of clusters using the case study of dairy farming using ICT in foreign countries. The study results clarify the following two points. First, the ICT differs depending on the classification by type of farm management in dairy farming. In dairy farms of the Netherlands and Germany, fully automatic milking systems have been introduced to save and reduce labor, while in China, a rotary parlor has been introduced in dairy farming to increase the number of milking cows. Second, the introduction of ICT promotes dairy clusters. Moreover, using ICT data and compost circulation-type production systems may lead to new business development.