This paper has an important purpose in discussing Labour Dispute in view of the relations between married women and working-class families, inquiring again and deeply into the former studies of Labour Dispute. Also, the paper has my attempt to realize how the relations between the companies and the working-class families (kigyokazoku kankei) have changed mainly in 1950s, making the point very clearly on the important case of “kazoku- gurumi” dispute on that occasion. Pointing the conclusion of the paper is as follows: First, the married women actually established their own independent position throughout the change of “kigyokazoku kankei” inside the domain of reproduction activities. Second, the union strategy for dealing with a struggle actually had many-sided aspects.
Japanese society has been characterized as “company-orientated” society. But it begins to be reconsidered owing to confronting white-collar dismissals. As a result of the situation like this, Tokyo Managers' Union was established in 1993. The dismissed white-collar managers and workers join the union to solve their problems. This has a tendency to form the anti-company orientated character. This paper, which reports the research consisting of the interview with fifty one members of Tokyo Managers' Union, has two main purposes. One is to show Tokyo Managers' Union as a labor union and its activities. The other is to demonstrate the member's alteration of consciousness that affects the connection with “company-orientated” society. In the paper, “company-orientated” society means the society where companies have control over their employee's entire life. First, this paper reveals that the philosophy and action policy of Tokyo Managers' Union are opposed to the system of “company-orientated” society to suppress labor union and workers. The leaders of Tokyo Managers' Union not only place emphasis on fulfilling the demands of workers throughout the consultations, but also try to profit from supporting individual initiatives of them through the mutual cooperation among the members; therefore the union has anti-bureaucratic tendencies and emphasizes the independence of union members. Second, the paper also gives an account of the member's alteration of consciousness. Most of the people of Tokyo Managers' Union have had a sense of loss on labor problems, a need-disposition like financial compensation, and a sense of morality to set their company’s unreasoning act right as initial motivation. They have cultivated the anti-company orientated consciousness, which set a higher value of the responsibility of self-determination and the equivalent relation, through the union's problem-solving activities. Some members leave the union after settling their problem. The others who have strongly the consciousness still stay and support the activities of the union for a prolonged period. This alteration of consciousness can be evaluated as the valuable attempts to redefine “company-orientated” society. Also, it is the future subject for me to determine the position of this survey in theoretical labor union researches.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the process and impact of the mass replacement of high school graduate job finders by foreign workers. To date, little attention has been paid to this subject. One reason is that the main concern of labor researchers has been the replacement of irregular employees, who are usually middle-aged married women. Another is that researchers on the transition from high school to work have mainly focused on the linkage between employers and high schools and the mechanism of the selection and allocation of students. However, high school graduate job finders and foreign workers compete with each other in terms of jobs (especially manual labor in the manufacturing sector) so much that they have effects on each other in many respects. Therefore, the two groups should not be analyzed separately. Employing both quantitative and qualitative methods and using Tochigi prefecture, where the numbers of both foreign workers and jobless high school graduates (mugyo-sha) have been increasing, this paper clarifies the following four points: (1) The recruitment needs of high school level skilled workers are not met in the manufacturing companies with under 100 employees. (2) 20 to 30 percent of manufacturing companies with over 100 employees employ foreign workers. (3) The larger the employee-size is, the larger is the number of manufacturing companies adopting foreign workers through indirect employment and the larger is the number of them per company. (4) While the magnitude of the mass replacement described above needs to be further analyzed, it is no doubt an acute occurrence. This paper demonstrates that such replacement brings about the job hierarchy formed by ethnicity and the intensive selection of a smaller number of candidates for training to be junior supervisors. It is thus necessary that such impact to be closely investigated.