This paper explores employment tenure and earnings profiles in Japan to explain the difference in the wages profile between the manufacturing industries and the financial insurance business. Central to my approach is Masanori Hashimoto and John Raisian 's wages function model in order to use the human capital theory. In the manufacturing industries, growth rates in earnings have been associated with tenure since 1985. On the other hand, growth rates in earnings haven't been associated with tenure in financial insurance business since 1985. As a whole, the total year of work experience is more important in financial insurance than in the manufacturing industries. These findings indicate that the pattern of the differences in employment tenure and earnings-tenure profiles is consistent with there being more specific human capital in the manufacturing industries than in the financial insurance business. In other words, the skill needed in industries is different. That can also account for the difference in the earnings profile between the manufacturing industries and the financial insurance business in financial deregulation of the 80s.
The purpose of this study is to clarify why some elder white-collars continue their employment after retirement. In the present Japanese society, fewer employment opportunities are left for elder persons who are willing to work after their retirement, and elder white-collars are particularly facing severe competitions in the labor market. Practically white-collars who continue their employment are selected by management. Some studies show that valuable employees for companies are those capable of dealing with uncertainties, and have long experiences in the same functional field. In this study, we examined the employability and career of elder white-collars through the case studies of two manufacturing companies. The study is based on interviews of 19 persons and personnel data of 57 persons in the two companies. The findings are as follows: 1) White-collars who are selected for continuous employment after retirement have job specific ability characterized by balanced combination of “skill variety” and “knowledge variety”. On the other hand, unselected ones do not. 2) The former has longer experience in the same functional field than the latter. The results indicated that Japanese long-term employment system is still valid from the perspective of effective accumulation and utilization of human resources which elder persons possess.
This paper aims to examine the changes of special training school of IT, and to point out a new direction for vocational education. In general, firms in Japan played a leading role in the vocational education of their employees. But until recently, special training schools were most important providers of vocational education in the field of IT. In the late 1990s, due deregulation in education in general, vocational education was rendered into something that doesn't deserve it’s name. At present, IT industry is facing the problems of the shortage of engineers. Because in-house education cannnot provide enough engineers, so Japan government promotes emigration of Indian IT engineers. A new direction for vacational education is suggested to replace in-house education.