This paper tries to clarify to what extent the global tranfer of “Japanese production system” and/or “Japanese industrial relations”, which is called “global Japanization”, is universally possible. First of all it is suggested that the institution of “Japanese production system” and/or “Japanese industrial relations” should be analyzed by two Leuels, which are an abstract “substance” level and a concrete “form” level. The “substance” level of the institution is consisted of class relations molded through capitalist development in Japan and some parts of them are substituted for precapitalist class relations. The “form” level of it is consisted of some contingent factors. Secondly this paper suggests that the “substance” level of the institution has “peculiarity” because it is consisted of unique factors in Japan and that the “form” level of it has “universality” because it is consisted of contingent factors, which cannot be necessarily reduced to Japanese capitalist development. Thirdly it is suggested that “global Japanization” should be estimated from the interaction of those two levels.
The aim of this study is to make clear the process of skill development of workers at small enterprises. I take up a case of K-Gokin, a foundry with 23 employees in Otaru, Hokkaido. This company produces many different kind of art object and machine parts, but the amount of each product is rather few. Most of the employees at K-Gokin have changed their job alter and won't stay long at his work shop. K-Gokin has a high turnover, which means the employees' various casting sklls are not developed for a long time. The worker begins to learn the skills after he enters K-Gokin. These skills cannot be taught at school, because they cannot be objectified and standardized. The worker learns necessary skills, while he is performing daily work. Therefore it is very important for the senior co-worker to tell aim what to do, and also important for worker to learn the skills through trial and error. Good relations in the labor community is also very important, because it controls dairy performance and skill transfer at K-Gokin. The workers at K-Gokin are always concerned about their relationship. It is, however, not always stable. It doesn't devide inside and outside the labor community in the labor market. Some workers quit at the same time, who are on good teams.