The impact of measures implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries on rural communities to conserve and improve land, water, and the environment is evaluated, using the difference-in-differences method with propensity score matching. The results indicate that support for community activities positively influences vitalization of village assembly and management of common-pool resources. However, the support does not have immediate effects; the activity items for management of common-pool resources increase progressively.
We discussed the philosophical and methodological characteristics of “Choson-ze“, which presumably is the first effort of rural planning practiced in the formation of modern Japan, and the development of Choson-ze by separating the mid to late Meiji period into four periods: 1)The predecessor of Choson-ze was proposed as the set of measures for local economic development, known as “Kogyo-iken” by Masana Maeda. 2)The idea was taken over by Keisuke Tanaka a provincial governor of Ukiha-gun, Fukuoka-prefecture. Tanaka formulated Gun-ze and Chouson-ze for his jurisdictional areas, which spread to other rural areas as a voluntary effort to improve rural economy. 3)Yodo-Sonze formulated by Koutaro Mori, a village mayor of Yodo, Ehime-prefecture, was one of example, reflecting local realities and modifications to original idea. 4)Later, Choson-ze was integrated into the Local Improvement Movement led by the Japanese government and homogenized in terms of the content.