The purpose of this paper is to review “once more” the research outcomes investigating the Sociology of Physical Education as a system and to suggest the future direction of the field based on its characteristic of being one domain of the academic fields of Physical Education, Health and Sport Science. One background behind this research is the fact that the Japan Society of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences has changed to be a general incorporated association since 2012. Furthermore, it decided to shift the purpose of its articles 2021 with the aim to contribute its academic outcome more to society. Additionally, since the Japan Society of Sport Sociology was founded in 1992, the Sociology of Physical Education has been considered to have a different nature. To fulfill the purpose of this paper, the followings were summarized and examined based on “The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology” by A.W.Gouldner （1970） in which he criticized “Seinsverbundenheit”, the nature of sociology, and tried to reconstruct the field of sociology: 1） the history of the Sociology of Physical Education as a system, 2） the impact of “Seinsverbundenheit” in the Sociology of Physical Education on its theory development, 3） a review on the modernity of “Physical Education” and “Sport” from the viewpoint of historical sociology. As a result, the following critical suggestions have been considered important for the reconstruction the Sociology of Physical Education. 1） Researchers should share archaeologic perspectives of the socio-genetic process of modern sports, in which educational values were added, and make aware of the benefits from perspectives of the Sociology of Physical Education to address sport-related problems in Japanese society. 2） Each researcher should study thoroughly previous methodologies related to their research and identify advantages and disadvantages of physical educator’s paradigms. 3） Accordingly, the researchers should construct a new theory of social movements based on the practical awareness of the Sociology of Physical Education, and continue to be actively involved with both Sport Sociology and the academic fields of Physical Education, Health and Sport Science by implementing the theory.
The purpose of this study was to elucidate potential future issues and prospects through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of oral presentation abstracts presented at academic societies specializing in physical education since the establishment of the Japan Society of Physical Education, Health and Sport Science （JSPEHSS）. The study analyzed 2,508 abstract titles and keywords published in the field of sociology of physical education since the first annual meeting of JSPEHSS. The qualitative analysis of this data was conducted using KH Coder text mining software and clarified the following. According to a quantitative analysis of the 70 meetings of JSPEHSS to date, 2,508 publications were identified in the field of sociology of physical education, with approximately half of that number being published between the 1970s and the 1990s, and the number of publications showing a decline since its peak in the 1980s. In addition, 63% of the publications were based on research using social survey methods, with that percentage showing a decrease since 2010. For the qualitative analysis, this study focused on research surrounding sports, society, and physical education. Results of the content analysis characterized the content as （1） “community”, （2） “sports group”, （3） “sports promotion”, （4） “individual sports behavior”, （5） “lifelong sports”, and （6） “sports policy”, and implemented based on each item’s historical background. From this study, there are four issues to be addressed in the future: （1） Establishment of uniqueness in sociology of physical education research, （2） Further advancement of specialized research methodologies, （3） Globalization of research, （4） Policy contribution toward applied sociology of physical education.
This study aims to clarify the relationship between scientific knowledge, life knowledge, and experience-based knowledge in sports nutrition support of sports coaches. Hence, we focused on sports magazines that attract the attention of sports coaches and feature many articles on nutrition, and thereafter, analyzed the information on nutrition. As a preliminary finding, we determined that, in the 1950s, there was hardly any information on sports nutrition support due to severe economic conditions following the war. However, in the 1960s and 1970s, because of the decision to host the Tokyo Olympic Games, the opportunities for researchers to gather and disseminate information on scientific knowledge about nutrition increased. Thus, information on experience-based knowledge of sports coaches has also increased. This has been viewed as an attempt to utilize the collaboration between scientific knowledge and practice in sports nutrition support. In the 1980s and 1990s, in sports nutrition support, advisors and experts have been disseminating information on scientific knowledge and life knowledge, a specific method of nutrition intake through meals. Unfortunately, information on experience-based knowledge concerning sports coaches has hardly surfaced. Therefore, in order for sports coaches to utilize scientific knowledge in sports nutrition support, it is necessary to verify and test the scientific knowledge against their own experience-based knowledge while referring to the other necessary knowledge from advisors and experts.
It is widely recognized that sports businesses run by sports associations have a public interest and that sports associations will be able to act as social capital. Simultaneously, the sports business has certain profitability and also attracting attention as a new growing industry. In this way, how should we institutionalize the business that integrates public interest and profitability in society?
This paper confirms the affinity of a cooperative association and sports business, referring the sports associations registered under “The Industrial and Providential Societies Act.: IPS” enacted on 1852 in UK, the birthplace of modern sports. The IPS institutionalized the cooperative philosophy proposed by R. Owen. Although cooperative laws are also available in Japan, there are no examples of sports associations registered and not possible to be registered as a cooperative in Japan. Japan's cooperative laws differ from the UK in terms of its limitation for business territory and conditions for becoming a member. In the UK, there are basically no restrictions on the operating businesses and the qualifications to be a cooperative member. In Japan, however, the operable business are regulated within a specific business, and the members are limited within a certain local area or occupation. Since a cooperative can enjoy preferential tax systems both in UK and Japan, higher requirements are applied in governance compare with a company. In UK, democratic governance by a wide range of citizen members is required. Whereas in Japan, the licensing and auditing authority supervises the governance. Through the observation of UK sports associations registered under IPS, they have gained economic sustainability through a sporting business with a certain profitability, which makes them possible to provide sports business that is not economically viable but having public interest. Through the integration of these businesses, sports association is developing to a social capital. We should also pay attention to the widely recognized instinct nature of sports, such as developing weak tie and cohesion among the people. By this nature, the association itself could be a symbol of a community, and then help them to be sustainable over the generation. In Japan, there is no juridical personality that fit and designed for such sports associations. The establishment of a cooperative-type juridical personality that can be used for sports associations will also help sports associations to provide public interest to society in more effective manner.