In this paper, firstly, we confirm that it is important for nursery school teachers to view children's formative expression from aesthetical and formative aspects. Secondly, through administering a questionnaire survey, we found that nursery school teachers' attention and confidence in judgement of the aforementioned aspects is low, compared to other aspects such as developmental, characteristic and psychological ones. We show that this is then related to the general involvement in arts (such as frequency of visits to art galleries, etc.) and the lack of enthusiasm to encourage children's formative expression. Lastly, we look at the issues and prospects for improving the ability to feel and to accept the beauty in children’s formative expression in the curriculum that trains nursery school teachers.
This paper considers what kind of art education is needed through an international comparison of pictures of war drawn by children of their experiences during a war.
In the Shimokawate hamlet of Matsunoyama in Tokamachi city, Niigata prefecture, approximately 3,000 works of photography and calligraphy drawn by children from the Taisho to the Showa period have been stored. They include those drawn of war, reflecting social background and educational philosophy of the time. In particular, comparing pictures of war drawn by children in Poland with those in Japan in the same period, a clear difference is observed between the two countries. The difference was interpreted from perspectives of "War Imagined by Children" and "War Seen by Eyes of Children" in the paper. It was also considered in reference to trends in art educational circles and the art world of the time as well as the theory of knowledge of J. Dewey.
In the conclusion of the paper, I have suggested the following three points. The first is the importance of "direct experience" in children's expression. The second point is the importance of vision for peace in art education. The third point is the effectiveness of educational utilization of regional historical materials. Finally, I have mentioned the meaning of how Herbert Read rephrased "Education through Art" as "Education for Peace."
The purpose of this paper is to propose a base model to assess art class lesson plans that promote students’ creativity and social-cultural engagement. We analyze various learning principles that focus on students’ agency as well as social-cultural interaction. The model is reviewed through two perspectives, art learning as creative actions and as a way of social-cultural engagement, in order to evaluate students’ self-directed creativity and peer interaction as effective learning process.
Through the applications of the model in the planning, execution, and reflection phases in multiple art classes, we verify the versatility of this model as an assessment tool across various art education settings.
This study aims to analyze previous studies written about evaluations of "artistic play activities" in Japanese elementary schools and build a hypothesis about educational aim, criterion, perspective, and observational evaluation. The author used text mining application software, "KH Coder," as a method of quantitative analysis to elucidate frequencies of the words and word distribution, generate a co-occurrence network, and execute a cluster analysis. Because of this research, it became apparent that the words embedded in a new arts and crafts course, such as "material," "place," and "space," were frequently used, and aspects of creating meanings and/or values in "artistic play activities" were significantly valued in the practice examples. Teachers should inherently utilize the hypothesis based on the outcomes of cluster analysis to ensure that their linguistic representation about educational evaluation is stimulated.