This paper is a comparative study of indigenous polities and their origin myths in the Lionese-speaking area of central Flores, eastern Indonesia, to explore the Austronesian context in which an “unmarried” sister of the supreme chief assumes the status of female chief in Lise Tana Telu, the largest Lionese chiefdom. Although not all chiefdoms have such a female chief, it is widely recognized that the primordial cross-sex sibling bond in mythical, ritual and other forms functions is the source of life at the level of indigenous polity. On the other hand, in the domain of kinship, the same kind of source is posited not in the bond of cross-sex siblings but in that of the maternal and patrilineal progenitors. The primordial cross-sex siblingship at the polity level takes multiple and divergent forms in the Lionese-speaking area. By comparing these, it is concluded that the relationship between the female chief and the supreme chief in Lise Tana Telu is one of the realization forms. This paper is the first part of a comparative study, and its sequel extends the scope to encompass Austronesian peoples in Formosa, the central part of insular Southeast Asia, western Polynesia and elsewhere in order to refine the typologies developed concerning primordial siblingship in this paper.
Soon after its establishment in 1996, Al-Jazeera emerged as a major international broadcaster. In particular, it attracted global attention by broadcasting exclusive videos of Bin Laden and a series of investigative reports on the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and it became a strong competitor of well-known international broadcasters such as BBC and CNN. From late 2010, Al-Jazeera also played an important role in the “Arab Spring.” Al-Jazeera is now the subject of hundreds of studies by numerous researchers. This research note has two purposes. First, in order to suggest future directions for the study of Al-Jazeera, it looks closely at previous studies about the company, points out three developmental stages in these studies, and presents some issues to be solved. Second, it proposes an analytical framework for better understanding of the structural transformation of Al-Jazeera with particular focus on political and economic factors. Although many studies have discussed Al-Jazeera’s political and social impact, studies that explain its structural transformation are inadequate. With reference to political communication theories, this research note attempts to propose better analytical framework for future studies of Al-Jazeera.