This article is an attempt to review the contribution of Kato Shuichi (1919-2008), who was one of the prominent literary critics in post-war Japan. Today, his various works covering broad spheres such as literature, history, cultural comparison, politics and so on are regarded as representing the quite classic and enlightenment modes of an elitist intellectual. This article attempts to reevaluate his thought in terms of his thinking on human universality based on our sensibility to the intangible and linguistic expressions of it. The intangible means here trans-linguistic experiences or breaks of linguistically ordinary order, and for him sensibility to it means empathy or affection to these experiences, never illogical in the sense of anti-linguistic order. In post-war Japan, Kato continued to express this sense of the intangible as trans-linguistic experiences through his thinking on ‘love, death, and beauty’ which were, for him, the foundation of the ability to discern between truth and fallacy in the political landscapes in his time. In so doing, it is concluded that the importance of Kato’s thinking is found in the fact that his way of criticism sought the way to universality in postwar Japan, where having a sense of the intangible based on the experience of the absurdity of the war was quite important. Human universality for Kato was not captured in rationalist or Enlightenment discourse, but it was universality through sensibility which is embedded and disembedded at the same time in particular situations. In Kato’s thinking, solidarity based on cultural activities does not depend on cultural cohesion centered on a unifying symbol like the Emperor in Japan, rather, universal solidarity can be fully maintained by the diversification of ways to express the intangible and a common sense to the expressions which is opened to the future by the very nature of the intangible.
This paper reconsiders the war damage reconstruction of Hiroshima, an A-bomb damaged city. In particular, we will focus on the feelings and experiences of the inhabitants, because many of them were forced to evacuate due to land demarcation and the construction of roads or parks in the process of the reconstruction. The historical reality of their story has been omitted from the history of postwar Japan, which has been hailed as a proud achievement of reconstruction from the ruins, and local cases have not been investigated enough. We will dig up and review the experiences of the individual inhabitants, mainly by analyzing the petitions that were written objecting to the reconstruction works during the period from 1945 through the 1950s. The reconstruction projects aimed to revive the A-bombed city, but they failed to consider the complicated psychologies of inhabitants who lost their lands, homes, and livelihoods through the reconstruction plan. The narrative of the petitions enables us to know how people were trying to improve the situation that they found themselves in through the arbitrary changing of the boundary lines of their houses and their lands. The inhabitants are an important constituent of a city by their concrete conception of their living place. This study shows why studying wardamage reconstruction from local cases and people’s viewpoints is important.
Increasing occurrences of extreme climatic events and abrupt temperature fluctuations have not only affected agricultural cultivation directly, but are also impacting the socio-economic conditions of rural communities. To some extent these changes have been observed in the Uji Area, a well-known tea growing region in Japan, where its tea cultivation process has been affected, altering the tea harvest yield and quality. The terroir concept, which is derived from wine grape cultivation, describes the relationship between the inherent natural environment conditions and traditional agricultural practices. This concept is an important tool for tea growers to swiftly adapt to on-going climate changes while maintaining the yield and quality characteristics of the tea products. Through the terroir concept, the important factors in tea cultivation which lead to the unique quality characteristics are measured and analyzed. These factors are also utilizable as the basis for an Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) framework that can swiftly cope with and adapt to the on-going effects of climate change. Furthermore, through applying the terroir concept, local communities will be able to learn and understand more about their natural environments, which in turn will make them more aware of the adverse effects of climate change.
As part of an initiative to develop green university campuses, measures to reduce water consumption have been conducted in many universities. Water saving equipment and rainwater harvesting systems have been installed in many universities. On the other hand, cases of installing water reuse recycling systems in university campuses are few. In this study, an empirical experiment for greywater reuse was conducted in a university research building which did not have experimental facilities or dining halls. A long term monitoring survey was carried out to investigate the volumes of consumed water and drainage water, the quality of greywater, and the treatment performance by contact oxidation (biological treatment) using a Johkasou wastewater treatment tank. Furthermore, life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to evaluate the greywater reuse system combined with wastewater harvesting in the TRICEA building at Biwako Kusatsu Campus, Ritsumeikan University. The results demonstrated that it is feasible to introduce a greywater reuse system using Johkasou and microfiltration in terms of water quality. The LCA results showed that a 32% reduction of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions related to water supply and treatment at the TRICEA building is possible by introducing both rainwater harvesting and water reuse systems.
The “Pearl Spring”, the mass protest movement which occurred in Bahrain in 2011, gathered a lot of attention amid the wave of the Arab Spring. However, this protest movement was repressed and the monarchy held onto its rule. What has happened to the country since then? The existing literature has shown that Bahraini politics after the 2011 uprising have been characterized by strengthened authoritarian rule and deepening social divisions. Against this background, this article examines formal and informal, royal-led and society-led attempts for national reconciliation. Though sincere efforts to bridge these social divisions have been made, their success has been limited. This article illustrates that a lack of mutual trust or consensus on the form of governance has led to this limited success. Furthermore, examination of the situation of youth societies also reveals the influence of the rules of the game exerted on the civilian society. To overcome such a dilemma, there was a call for national consensus on the Bahraini constitution, but divisions among the society as a whole, as well as among the ruling family and the opposition, have cast a shadow over national reconciliation.
The purpose of this article is to verify the advancement of nuclear weapons under the Kim Jong Un regime and its survivability in terms of Nuclear Deterrence Theory, which would become the first step, to providing an answer to the question: What brought about the historic June 2018 summit between the US and the DPRK that had not been held for over 70 years? Firstly, this article will explore the development of its advanced nuclear weapons by both qualitative and quantitative methods by examining how the Kim Jong Un regime made the decision to accelerate its nuclear development and then put it into practice. Secondly, I will review how the Trump administration and the Kim Jong Un regime changed their perceptions of each other after North Korea proved its ability to invulnerably attack the US mainland and its allies through its advancement of nuclear weapons. Finally, the survivability of the Kim Jong Un regime will be considered according to its analytical framework, namely the nuclear deterrence theory. Based on these verification results where the DPRK’s survivability has been consolidated in a military sense and crisis stability between the US and the DPRK has been improved, this article also clarifies implications for North Korea’s new security strategy, regional studies on the DPRK, and Nuclear Deterrence Theory itself.