Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a perennial plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, and its rhizomes have been widely used as a spice, a flavoring agent, and a medicinal plant since ancient times. There are many cultivars of ginger around the world, so discrimination between and characterization of different ginger cultivars are essential for the effective use of ginger. In this study, metabolite profiling of eight samples of ginger from Indonesia and Japan was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and multivariate statistical analysis. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear differences in composition between the ginger cultivars. It was clarified that oxygenated sesquiterpenes were detected at higher levels in ginger from Indonesia, whereas sesquiterpenes were more abundant in ginger native to Japan. In addition, a heatmap obtained based on the results of hierarchical cluster analysis showed that ginger was clustered according to the properties of each cultivar. These results are helpful for understanding the different traditional uses of ginger. Metabolite profiling using GC-MS coupled with multivariate analysis is an effective way to evaluate the overall chemical differences between the different kinds of ginger.
Curcuma drugs are derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma plants, such as C. aeruginosa, C. aromatica, C. heyneana, C. longa, C. mangga, C. phaeocaulis, C. xanthorrhiza and C. zedoaria. They have been used as a spice, as a dye for textiles, as a major ingredient of curry powder and as a drug in traditional medicine, in many Asian countries. In Japan, Curcuma drugs derived from C. longa have been used to strengthen and tone the stomach, and the drug derived from C. zedoaria has been used to relieve the symptoms of “Oketsu” (various syndromes caused by the obstruction of blood circulation such as arthralgia, psychataxia and dysmenorrhea). In Indonesia, many Curcuma plants, such as C. xanthorrhiza (Temulawak), C. longa (Kunyit), are more commonly used in traditional Jamu medicine. The composition of the chemical constituents of Curcuma drugs often varies depending on the species, the geographical location, the cultivation conditions, and the post-harvest processing. In the present study, to evaluate the qualities of the Curcuma drugs produced in several countries in Asia, the chemical profiles of their constituents were investigated. As a result, it was shown that C. longa produced in Indonesia has the highest concentration of curcumin, which is one of the major active constituents in Curcuma drugs. Concerning the volatile constituents, C. longa and C. xanthorrhiza were characterized by high contents of bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes. Characteristic distributions of the sesquiterpenes, curzerenone, curdione, curcumenol and γ-bicyclohomofarnesal appeared in the chemical profiles of C. aeruginosa, C. heyneana, C. mangga, C. zedoaria, C. phaeocaulis, and C. aromatica. The following marker compounds of C. heyneana were identified; curcumanolide A and B, procurcumenol, 15, 16-bisnorlabda-8 (17),11-diene-13-one, zedoarondiol, isozedoarondiol and aerugidiol.
Patients with suspected aspiration pneumonia, whose oral feeding is restricted, are managed by enteral nutrition. However, enteral nutrition often produces fever or increased inflammation responses. Semi-solid nutrient has been confirmed to prevent fever or inflammation responses. The purpose of the present study is to retrospectively examine the frequency of fever and inflammation responses in older patients in a recuperation hospital in order to determine whether varying the viscosity of nutrients is effective in reducing fever and inflammation responses.
The subjects of this research are twenty-one patients in their mid 70s -80s, receiving treatment in a recuperation hospital. They were divided into three groups. Seven subjects were assigned liquid nutrient (0 millipascal・second (mPa・s) group); seven were given 400 mPa・s of semi-solid nutrient (400 mPa・s group), and seven were administered 2000 mPa・s of semi-solid nutrient (2000 mPa・s group). The physiological (body temperature and number of fever episodes) and biochemical (White blood corpuscle (WBC) and Creactive protein (CRP)) data were measured in each group.
The resulting data revealed that body temperature, number of fever episodes, WBC, and CRP variations were not significantly different for each group. Therefore, it was determined that administering a low-viscosity of semi-solid nutrient is not effective for improving fever and inflammation responses.
Structure from motion (SfM) is suitable for continuous measurement of temporal changes in object surfaces; however, its accuracy depends on several factors, including the video recording method, camera quality, and weather conditions. We applied SfM in flume and field experiments on a landslide dam outburst. For the flume experiments, we constructed a landslide dam within the flume, and then supplied water until the dam broke. We recorded the dam deformation process using multiple video cameras. In the field experiment, we recorded a large-scale landslide dam outburst on a mountain streambed. We generated threedimensional (3D) and digital elevation models (DEMs) from the resulting videos using the SfM method. The flume experiment results demonstrated that SfM can be used to acquire 3D coordinates of the dam deformation process with a maximum error of < 0.034 m. The field experiment results showed that SfM can be used to acquire 3D data with error < 0.066 m. We conclude that SfM methods can be used to clarify the dam deformation process and validate numerical simulation model results.
In the tropical region of Southeast Asia, coffee is among the most valuable agricultural crops produced and Indonesia is one of the largest producers of coffee in the world. This region is among the most vulnerable to anthropogenic climatic change, where the temperature variability is projected to increase, with a significant increase in the variability of precipitation patterns, increasing occurrences of severe weather events and temperature increases. Climate change will bring negative impacts on crop production yields, especially coffee, thus directly impacting the livelihoods of smallholder coffee farmers in Indonesia. This inquiry aims to explore how the Terroir-based Adaptation Framework can be utilized as an important tool for the coffee growers in the Solok Region to swiftly adapt to the ongoing climate changes, while enhancing the production and quality characteristics of their Arabica coffee beans. Under the current climatic trend, future production will not be able to satisfy the increasing demand for high-quality coffee, thus coffee prices are projected to increase. Additionally, through this framework the coffee farmers can feel pride of ownership in the coffee beans that they produce and be encouraged to increase Arabica beans' production using their traditional cultivation knowledge, thus ensuring the sustainability of coffee cultivation in their areas.
Regenerating a small-sized mining city after the mine has closed is a challenging task facing many former mining communities all across the globe. During the mining period, these cities may become a source of prosperity by providing jobs, establishing public service infrastructures, and triggering regional development within the country. At the core of this promising community are the miners themselves, consisting of native inhabitants and immigrant mining workers. An urban sprawl evolves in the area adjacent to the mining sites over generations, and significantly it is dependent on the nearby mining operations. Nevertheless, once the operator terminates the mine due to resource depletion or uneconomical production, the city begins suffering an inherited problem encompassing economic, social, and environmental dimensions.
Outmigration is one of the salient social problems when mining leaves a community. Miners and their descendants leave for a better living in new prosperous cities. This study aims to identify the effect of place attachment on the development of a post-mining city, specifically in the case of mining heritage tourism. It also recognizes the loyalty level of the community members. Native inhabitants and immigrant workers may have a distinct attachment to the city they are living in. This study revealed that resident status is a significant predictor in their loyalty while age, place of birth, length of residence, and experience of living in the mining era are not significant to the construction of the loyalty model. The result indicated that migrant residents were likely to have a higher loyalty level than native residents.
The rapid urbanization of Greater Jakarta has resulted in the urban expansion of its peripheral cities, one of which is Tangerang city, which is considered the most developed peripheral city compared to the others. While the development of housing including highrise apartments and commercial centers is spreading all over Tangerang city, as a suburban area, the development of infrastructure is still insufficient, especially in the case of the neighborhood facilities. As an effect of rapid urbanization, the housing backlog as well as the quantity of inadequate housing has increased, and many slum settlements have emerged. The development of subsidized apartments was chosen by the planning officials to mitigate the housing backlog by providing housing with better facilities and building features. One of the important factors to be considered to understand people’s decisions to move to better housing was place-attachment. This study investigates how far place-attachment affects the slum dwellers’ willingness to move to Rusunawa by using quantitative methods in the form of descriptive analysis and in-depth interviews. The results show that, to a certain degree, place-attachment plays an important role in residents’ willingness to move.
The purpose of this article is to assess the DPRK’s advanced nuclear weapons’ influence on the credibility of the US extended deterrence for Japan from the perspective of nuclear deterrence theory. The structure of this article is firstly to review preceding works both on theories related to extended deterrence and on area studies in the regions having lived with nuclear weapons. Secondly, it will reveal the current evaluation of the advanced nuclear weapons developed under the Kim Jong Un regime as well as the history of how the US extended deterrent for Japan has developed. Finally, I will theoretically analyze its influences on the US extended deterrent, especially focusing on Missile Defense (MD), for Japan, while contemplating the clearly changing security environment that has been observed nowadays. As a result of its verification, this article concludes that at present the credibility of the US extended deterrent to Japan has decreased when compared to the past seventy years, considering the ever longer spear of the DPRK, which is capable of reaching US metropolitan cities, such as Washington D.C. and NYC, and able to break through the shield of the US-Japan alliance.
In postwar Japan, the significance of Nakamura Yujiro (1925-2017) is underexplored domestically and internationally although he is a well-known philosopher in his unique arguments such as the “common sense”, “rhythm”, “oscillation” and so on. This paper attempts to clarify his significance in the context of philosophical and theoretical history over the relation between “institution” and “liberty”. What a series of his works reveals is that institution is not sharply opposed to liberty, and rather, institutionalized realities concretize our liberties in parallel in terms of a system of unconsciously creative acts. Based on this view, this paper tries to define the implication of this insight from Nakamura’s philosophy as the social philosophy of the post-excluded middle. That is to say, western philosophies of institution and liberty based on Hegel have their axis on the paradigm of contradiction and negativity, which makes institution and liberty opposed to each other. However, this opposition can be radically reconsidered from Nakamura’s view of the duality of institution and liberty.
Recently, Japanese university education has started to encourage active learning among students. However, progress has been limited due to a lack of strategic planning regarding pedagogical approaches and learner barriers. To find solutions to support teaching and learning, this study examines the applicability of a combined pedagogical approach: The Interaction for Learning Framework (ILF) and translanguaging. The ILF has proven effective in fostering students’ active interaction in monolingual classes, as has translanguaging in dealing with linguacultural matters. However, the application of these two approaches together in the classroom has never been examined in the Japanese context, especially in liberal arts classes. Thus, this study seeks to investigate whether such a combined approach can provide a high degree of engagement for students and enable them to meet their educational goals with a high degree satisfaction. Students’ assessment of the approach was obtained via a questionnaire. The analysis focused on students’ assessment of the environment, interaction, learning of new concepts, and reflection. Results showed that students were highly satisfied with the course setting, suggesting the applicability of this pedagogical approach to meet specific educational needs. This study concludes that a pedagogical approach utilizing the ILF with translanguaging can provide a satisfactory class environment for students to foster active interaction and engagement, especially in Japanese university liberal arts classes.
The preservation and management of cultural heritage, while making it available for everyone to appreciate and passing it on to future generations is a formidable challenge. Digital museums, which use digital technologies to measure, record, preserve, and exhibit tangible and intangible cultural assets, have attracted increasing attention in the last two decades. By applying digital information technologies such as laser-scanning, computer graphics, geographic information systems, high-realistic sound filed recording, and virtual reality, digital museums enable the general public to appreciate the cultural heritage of both objects and events without the restraints of time and space. This paper briefly introduces the basic concepts, development status, technical requirements, and future prospects of digital museums. We also introduce our approach to the next-generation digital museum with two of our studies: the transparent visualization of laser-scanned 3D cultural heritages in Japan, and a virtual reproduction of the Yamahoko Parade of the Gion Festival.
Ed. by Editorial Board of TraFST “Knowledge Integration” Series, written by Kaoru ENDO, Takao TERANO, Aki-Hiro SATO, Satoshi KURIHARA, Setsuya KURAHASHI, Satoshi TANAKA, Tokyo: Tokyo Denki University Press, 2017