Asian Journal of Occupational Therapy
Online ISSN : 1347-3484
Print ISSN : 1347-3476
ISSN-L : 1347-3476
最新号
選択された号の論文の11件中1~11を表示しています
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • Koki Kishimoto, Shinichi Noto
    2022 年 18 巻 1 号 p. 1-8
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/01/28
    ジャーナル フリー

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the effects of driving cessation on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of older adults who do not have a driver's license.

    Method: A cross-sectional study using a web-based questionnaire was conducted. Participants were 1,200 individuals aged 65 years or older who did not have a driver's license in Japan. Participants answered questions about their HRQOL (HUI3 and SF-8) and driving cessation using a self-administered questionnaire. Those who had surrendered their driver's license were also asked about their HRQOL before driving cessation.

    Results: The HRQOL scores of the drivers who ceased driving were significantly lower than those of non-drivers. The HRQOL scores of the drivers who ceased driving were also significantly decreased—from −.816 to −.728 (< .001) for the HUI3 and from 51.5 to 49.5 (< .001) for the physical component summary of the SF-8—when comparing scores before and after driving cessation. The results of our multiple regression analysis showed that the number of years since driving cessation and incidence of major illness also affected HRQOL.

    Conclusion: There is a clear relationship between driving cessation and a decrease in HRQOL. This confirms the necessity of implementing measures in the future to address this issue, such as securing means of transportation for older people who have ceased driving.

  • Masato Ikegami, Hitoshi Mutai, Yoshie Yuzawa, Nobuko Sakai
    2022 年 18 巻 1 号 p. 9-16
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/01/28
    ジャーナル フリー

    Background and Purpose: In patients with stroke, predictors of the use of paralyzed upper limbs in each activity of daily life, including eating and toileting, are not clear. Therefore, we aimed to identify factors that predict the use of paralyzed upper limbs in specific activities of daily life in patients with acute stroke.

    Method: This prospective observational study enrolled 155 patients with acute stroke. We used the paralytic arm participation measure (PPM) to evaluate the use of the paralyzed upper limb in daily life. Eating and toileting were assessed at admission and discharge. Factors that predicted the use of the paralyzed upper limb at discharge were analyzed by binomial logistic regression analysis.

    Results: The predictors of the use of paralyzed upper limbs for eating at discharge were age [odds ratio (OR)=0.93, p=.011], paralysis of the dominant hand (OR=3.75, p=.044), and motor function of the paralyzed upper limb (OR=2.16, p<.001). For toileting, the predictors were motor function of the paralyzed upper limb (OR=1.75, p<.001), sensory function of the paralyzed upper limb (OR=1.66, p=.004), and muscle strength of the quadriceps on the non-paralyzed side (OR=3.65, p=.005).

    Conclusion: These identified predictors may provide clues to interventions promoting the use of paralyzed upper limbs in the daily life of hospitalized patients with acute stroke. Observation and evaluation of each activity by an occupational therapist using the PPM is potentially useful in encouraging patients to consciously use the paralyzed upper limbs in daily life.

  • Katsuma Ikeuchi, Yuki Yasuda, Ryuichi Saito, Seiji Nishida, Yasushi Or ...
    2022 年 18 巻 1 号 p. 17-23
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/01/28
    ジャーナル フリー

    Introduction: Peer support programs are mainly studied by hospitals and medical professionals, and further research is needed on their impact on quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study was to investigate the type of community-based peer support program that is effective for improving the QOL of cancer survivors.

    Method: A systematic review was performed using the following procedures: (1) randomized controlled trials aimed at improving QOL were searched from PubMed and Igaku Chuo Zasshi, (2) papers that met the inclusion criteria were selected, and (3) the papers were assessed for quality by using the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials.

    Results: Results showed that four studies met the eligibility criteria, and three of them showed statistically significant improvements in QOL. The peers instructed in programs were breast cancer survivors who had been diagnosed one to three years earlier. Furthermore, peers received special training for approximately eight hours per session for a total of two to seven days before providing support to the participants.

    Conclusion: Few programs have been fully applied in Japan. In terms of program effectiveness and risk of bias, programs that include obtaining support and managing activities that affect mood may be effective. Furthermore, the importance of taking enough time to help cancer survivors trust each other and provide support according to the patient's wishes and available community resources was demonstrated.

  • Makoto Tanaka, Takao Osanai, Takuhiko Kato, Hisako Ogasawara, Kazumaru ...
    2022 年 18 巻 1 号 p. 25-30
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/03/26
    ジャーナル フリー

    The purpose of this study is to identify how cognitive functions such as attention and cognitive processes, such as the retention process to maintain an image needed in the learning by imitation process, are related to the ability to convert this into action (imitation) in patients with schizophrenia. Many people with schizophrenia have a lower imitation ability compared to healthy persons. Those with low imitation ability had lower scores for cognitive functions such as MMSE and visuospatial cognitive functions such as the number of correct answers in MRT. As described above, reduced imitation ability in patients with schizophrenia is caused by problems in information processing which temporarily retains and manipulates visual information during the performance of a task.

  • Keisuke Irie, Junpei Yokota, Masakatsu Takeda, Kohei Mukaiyama, Yuji N ...
    2022 年 18 巻 1 号 p. 31-37
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/03/26
    ジャーナル フリー

    Introduction: In racket sports, it is necessary to devise a gripping method that facilitates both the efficient transmission of power and injury prevention. This study quantified grip pressure distribution (PD) in the hand using various gripping methods and investigated the relationship between these distributions and muscle activation.

    Methods: In a laboratory setting, a grip sensor was used to measure hand PD in 15 healthy adults during each task. Participants gripped the sensor device using three grip patterns with simultaneous electromyography (EMG) recordings from the extensor digitorum communis (EDC), extensor carpi radialis, flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU). The device's hand-contact area was assigned anatomical regions, and the percentage PD of each region was calculated for each task. We compared the EMG in each grip pattern and analyzed the correlation between grip force and EMG.

    Results: The main outcomes measured were EMG and PD. For radial and power grips, there was a significant relationship between EDC and grip force (r = 0.52, 0.47). For the ulnar grip, there was a significant relationship between FDS and grip force (r = 0.55). Furthermore, the ulnar grip's EDC activity was significantly lower than that of the power grip, and FCU activity was significantly higher than that of the radial grip (p < 0.05).

    Discussion: The ulnar grip had significantly lower EDC activity than the power grip and higher FCU activity, which is involved in the elbow joint's stability, than the radial grip. The ulnar grip may be effective in preventing injuries.

  • Jumpei Oba, Sumiko Yamamoto, Kengo Ohnishi, Isamu Kajitani, Yaeko Shib ...
    2022 年 18 巻 1 号 p. 39-46
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/03/26
    ジャーナル フリー

    Objective: The influence of myoelectric hand training on the ability of amputees to operate a prosthetic hand has not been fully verified. This study aimed to investigate the effects of single-handed and dual-handed tasks on the ability of amputees to use a myoelectric prosthetic hand in training.

    Method: The subjects were unilateral transradial amputees (n = 12). The training effects of each task were measured by assigning the myoelectric hand prosthesis users to two groups and conducting a crossover study: one group performed the single-handed task first followed by the dual-handed task, and the other group did the opposite. The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) score was used to assess the subjects' ability to control the myoelectric prosthetic hand.

    Results: The training effect differed significantly between the single-handed task, SHAP score: 6.3 (5.8-8.5) points, and the dual-handed task, SHAP score: 10.3 (8.8-14.2) points; however, the effect was insufficient (p = 0.008, r = 0.20).

    Conclusion: The dual-handed task improved the subjects' ability to accurately operate a myoelectric hand more effectively than the single-handed task. This suggests that the dual-handed task is more effective at developing control of opening/closing movements and object handling with a myoelectric hand than the single-handed task.

  • Tomohiro Ota, Hiroyuki Hashidate, Natsuki Shimizu, Mitsunobu Yatsunami
    2022 年 18 巻 1 号 p. 47-54
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/03/26
    ジャーナル フリー

    Background and Objectives: A knee–ankle–foot orthosis (KAFO) has been clinically used for individuals with stroke, but its effect is still unclear. This study was to evaluate the immediate effects of a KAFO on the standing reach of individuals with subacute stroke.

    Method: This study adopted a cross-sectional experimental design. A total of 31 inpatients with subacute stroke (mean age, 66.5 ± 14.4 years; mean poststroke interval at admission, 26.2 ± 10.1 days) were enrolled in the study. The functional reach test (FRT) was used to measure the standing reach of the participants with or without a KAFO. The participants were divided into the following groups on the basis of the results of FRT without a KAFO: group 1 comprised patients who were unable to reach without a KAFO (n = 22), and group 2 comprised patients who had the ability to reach without a KAFO (n = 9).

    Results: In group 1, the proportion of participants who could reach with a KAFO significantly increased (p = 0.002). In group 2, the mean standing reach with a KAFO (25.4 ± 6.7 cm) was significantly longer than that without a KAFO (20.3 ± 7.0 cm) (p = 0.021).

    Conclusion: The use of a KAFO may immediately improve the standing reach of individuals with subacute stroke. Results show that a KAFO may be an effective device for improving standing reach and can be used to develop rehabilitation programs for individuals with subacute stroke.

  • Kaori Ito, Keisuke Hanada, Kayoko Yokoi, Kazutaka Sakamoto, Kazumi Hir ...
    2022 年 18 巻 1 号 p. 55-64
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/03/26
    ジャーナル フリー

    Objective: In stroke patients with visual impairment, it is unclear which activities of daily living (ADL) are affected or how they are affected. This study aimed to determine the effect of the type and prevalence of visual impairments on ADL in acute stroke patients.

    Method: We interviewed stroke patients without severe movement disorder, aphasia, general inattention, or hemispatial neglect who were admitted to our hospital between September 2018 and May 2020 for lesions in the cortical and subcortical white matter posterior to the central sulcus. The patients were asked via a questionnaire whether they had ADL impairments related to 13 types of visual impairments, and to provide specific examples. We determined the types of visual impairments, the prevalence of each impairment, and what effect they exerted on daily life.

    Results: Sixteen participants were included. Fifteen participants had defective visual search, 14 had hemianopic dyslexia, 9 had walking trajectory deviations, and 6 had difficulty in recalling the place where they were seeing right before. In addition, there were defective visual counting, difficulty in judging distance, and pure alexia.

    Conclusion: Even in cases without severe movement disorder, aphasia, general inattention, and hemispatial neglect, cerebral infarction in the posterior half of the cerebrum causes problems in ADL due to visual impairment. It is important to interview patients from the acute stage with visual impairment in mind.

  • Atsuko Suzuki-Urayama, Yui Takahashi, Mitsuhiro Nito, Katsuhiko Suzuki ...
    2022 年 18 巻 1 号 p. 65-70
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/03/26
    ジャーナル フリー

    The purpose of this study was to examine the kinetics of the visual axis and pupil diameter during caregiver-assisted eating. The eating task was caregiver-assisted eating of twelve healthy volunteers. Visual axis position, spoon bowl motion, and pupil diameter were recorded using an eye tracker and a digital video camera. All participants indicated visual axis on a spoon or food during the motion of moving the spoon to the participant's mouth in caregiver-assisted eating. Critical visual point (CVP) disappeared completely in all trials of all participants. The min-to-max and max-to-min pupil diameters, differences and changing were divided to three patterns for caregiver-assisted eating in all participants. Most patterns showed decrease of pupil diameter. These data suggest that the participant looked carefully at the food or the spoon using an accommodation reflex and a convergence reflex. Caregiver-assisted eating is natural in non CVP. A participant does not have somatosensory information during eating motion in caregiver-assisted eating. Positional information of a spoon is obtained only from visual information. We speculated that participant anxiety was stronger with caregiver-assisted eating than with unassisted eating. However, the causes of an increase and lack of change in pupil diameter remain unclear. Occupational therapists, who understands biological responses during eating motion, must teach a caregiver-assistant methods that are suitable for a participant.

  • Yuji Hirose, Chieko Karashima, Go Igarashi
    2022 年 18 巻 1 号 p. 71-78
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/03/26
    ジャーナル フリー

    Objective: The number of children with special education needs (SEN) is on the rise in Japan. However, the behavior and sensory modulation functions of preschool-aged children with SEN have not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral and sensory modulation characteristics of preschool-aged children with SEN compared with those of children without SEN.

    Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire on children's behavioral problems and sensory modulation, which was reported by nursery teachers who cared for children with and without SEN. Forty-two nursery teachers who were involved with the care of children with and without SEN were asked to complete the Japanese version of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) and the Japanese version of the Short Sensory Profile (SSP).

    Results: The results showed that both ECBI and SSP scores were significantly higher in children with SEN than in children without SEN (p < 0.01), and that the SSP domain scores for underresponsive/seeks sensation and auditory filtering in children with SEN were significantly correlated with ECBI scores (p < 0.05).

    Conclusion: Children with SEN had more sensory modulation bias and behavioral problems than children without SEN, and there was an association between sensory modulation bias and behavioral problems in children with SEN.

  • Shoji Onishi, Hanae Kosuge, Keiko Kumagai
    2022 年 18 巻 1 号 p. 87-93
    発行日: 2022年
    公開日: 2022/03/30
    ジャーナル フリー

    The Rey–Osterrieth complex figure test drawings of 68 children with learning disabilities who have difficulty acquiring kanji writing were evaluated using Osterrieth's scoring system (accuracy scale) and the organizational scoring system (drawing strategy scale) to understand the factors involved in their visual information processing. After 1 week or more, a second evaluation was performed with a color-coded setting for the components in the figure. The scores of each scale were normalized into z-scores. Using the z-scores as the dependent variables, a two-factor analysis of variance was performed for the color-coding and evaluation scale factors. Children with learning disabilities who have difficulty learning kanji writing had a problem with perceiving the components of the figure as a unit, which suggests that they found it difficult to recall the figure. It is considered that the factor involved in the visual information processing of children with learning disabilities who have difficulty acquiring kanji writing is largely influenced by the disability in using the composition strategy that promotes recall. A comparison of the evaluation results, based on the presence or absence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), suggests that children with ADHD and ASD tend to be more affected by the impaired use of composition strategies.

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