Ayurveda is an Eastern system of medicine that has been practised for over 5000 years. The relationship between occupations and health is a fundamental aspect of the ayurvedic health model. It could contribute a strong spiritual element to modern occupational therapy practice and may be more culturally appropriate for people with strong Hindu/Buddhist beliefs than modern occupational therapy models. The aim of this paper is therefore to introduce the ayurvedic model to occupational therapists that are unfamiliar with it. It describes assumptions underlying the ayurvedic model and related frames of reference that are relevant to occupational therapy. Yoga is the main occupational therapy intervention advocated by the model. The branches of yoga are described. Other traditional interventions are summarised but not described in detail. Sanskrit terminology has mostly been removed and concepts have been simplified for the ease of a general readership.
Occupational therapists managing subjects with feeding or swallowing problems must determine appropriate swallowing postures for feeding, while considering risks and swallowing function. Few reports have addressed associations between trunk position and swallowing function, so this study aimed to provide basic data on such associations for practical use. Noninvasive procedures were used to assess the effects of different trunk positions on swallowing functions during voluntary swallowing in 17 healthy adult women. Water bolus transport was not recognized in the laryngeal movement latency of oral phases, and was recognized in the duration of laryngeal movement of pharyngeal phases. Significant differences were recognized only for duration of laryngeal movement between the 90° and 30° trunk positions. Swallowing saliva appears to be influenced by preceding water swallowing, in addition to visual input. Decisions regarding swallowing postures the subject should take during swallowing require integrated general data, including swallowing function status of laryngeal movements, consistency, gravity and internal pressures.
Occupational therapy seeks to effectively change clients' behavior to result in better quality of life by both focusing on tasks that clients find purposeful and meaningful and by enhancing clients' sense of competence. Self-regulatory system theory similarly demonstrates that behaviors are best predicted by the combined influence of one's competence to perform a task (self-efficacy) and the purposefulness and meaningfulness of a task (outcome expectancy). In this paper, twenty-four scales for self-efficacy and outcome expectancy for older adults were reviewed. However, these scales were found not to be validly following the theoretical framework. Furthermore, in clinical contexts, therapists rarely evaluate clients' states using scales; rather they observe clients' nonverbal and verbal behavior. This observational assessment is not only found to be reliable but also helps to develop a strong working alliance and better rehabilitation outcome. Research is currently underway to develop a systematic method to identify which of the clients' cues are valid and reliable expressions of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy.