From the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, the main challenges with regard to forestry in China have been how to develop a forest management system to increase and conserve forests, and maintain their multiple services, particularly for the sake of land protection and future forest products. These forests already suffered severe damage during the long history of human development. One of the key players in developing a forest management system were the so-called forest professionals as well as the political leaders of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). While these professionals obtained and disseminated knowledge and technologies concerning forests and forestry through specialized education, some of them were promoted as forest bureaucrats by CCP leaders to support forest policies. Additionally, others were engaged in education and research as scientists, or practicing forest environment modifications in local communities as technicians or voluntary helpers. Liang Xi (1883–1958) was appointed as the PRC’s first Minister of Forestry. He was the most typical and classic example of the professional forest bureaucrat. Before 1949, he studied modernized forestry in Japan and Germany and was working to disseminate it in China as a professor of forestry. In the process of international intellectual exchanges, Liang Xi and other professionals reaffirmed the significance of developing a forest management system to increase and conserve forests on a national level in China. This awareness was also shared by the political leaders of the time, such as Sun Yat-sen, Mao Zedong, and Deng Xiaoping. This common awareness between professionals and political leaders was the main reason that Liang Xi was promoted to the highest forestry-related position in China in 1949. As the first Minister of Forestry, Liang Xi contributed to creating specialized governmental organizations to maintain and enhance the multiple services of forests. He also attached particular importance to the cultivation of forest professionals and set up forestry universities and other educational institutions in order to establish a base of human resources and social philosophy for sustainable forest management in China. The forest management system he led to establish was distorted by radical policy changes during the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, but it was nevertheless passed on to Liang Xi’s followers as well as students from the universities and institutions Liang Xi had led to set up. These successors of Liang Xi would go on to bring back the forest management system after the 1980s, the period of economic reform and opening up of China to the outside world. As a result of this historical background, we can see well-developed government organizations and educational institutions specializing in forest management in China nowadays. In addition, various types of forest professionals have emerged and supported this system as a human resource throughout the PRC period.
The purpose of this study is to examine the international migration of human resources for health (HRH) from ASEAN countries using available datasets. The medical brain drain has been a concern for public health authorities of many developing countries, but there have been relatively few quantitative studies on this problem in ASEAN countries. There were 30,007 doctors from ASEAN working in OECD countries in 2004. The largest source of doctors in ASEAN was the Philippines, followed by Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia and Myanmar, according to the data of Bhargave, Docquier, and Moullan (2010). The United States was the biggest recipient of migrant doctors from ASEAN, followed by the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and Germany. According to the data made by Dumont and Zurn (2007), which shows the number of all HRH professionals which immigrated to OECD countries circa 2000, the Philippines sent the largest number of doctors and nurses, while Vietnam sent the largest number of dentists and pharmacists. The study proceeds to examine the determinants of international migration of doctors, nurses, dentists and pharmacists. Dumont and Zurn (2007)’s data as well as WHO and World Bank data were used to analyse the determinants of emigration of HRH professionals at the country level. The result shows that the density of doctors and nurses, the general emigration rate, the proportion of public expenditure in health expenditure, and the existence of English and French speaking population had positive impacts on the per capita outflow of HRH migration to OECD countries, while the Gini Index had a negative impact. The analysis also indicates that there are differences in the size and impact of emigration of HRH among ASEAN countries. There are some limitations to the study. First, the study did not analyse HRH migration between ASEAN countries. Secondly, the study did not analyse the bilateral relationship between a source country and a destination country. Finally, the study did not distinguish between a temporary destination country and a final destination country of HRH migration.
This study aims to describe recent trends in the nurse migration policy of Indonesia. Lagging far behind the Philippines, Singapore, and Malaysia, Indonesia started to send nurses to the Middle East in 1989 only in a small number, mainly because Indonesian nurses had less professional skills and proficiency in English than those from the abovementioned countries. However, Indonesia found its niche in the international health workforce market—low skilled domestic workers such as maids and babysitters, who also work as caregivers for the elderly and the handicapped. Faced with bad working conditions and frequent ill-treatment at their workplace, however, the outflow of domestic workers from Indonesia is decreasing recently, and the country is now encouraging the out-migration of nurses and qualified caregivers who work in hospitals and care centers. For nurses and caregivers to adapt to the work in foreign countries, they need not only to master local language but also understand the local disease structure, learn related law and local work ethics of nursing and caregiving. In a developing country like Indonesia, medical workers often deal with infectious disease and maternal and child health problems. But what is more important in developed countries, where Indonesian nurses and caregivers will be sent, are nursing and caregiving for the elderly and the handicapped. From 2008, Japan started to accept candidates for nurses and caregivers from Indonesia and some other ASEAN countries on the basis of the economic partnership agreements (EPAs) between Japan and these countries. However, these candidates are facing difficulty in adapting to the work environment in Japan and in passing the examination, which is conducted in Japanese and required to work as qualified nurses and caregivers in Japan. It is argued that the benefit of accepting Indonesian nurses and caregivers to Japan is not enough to compensate for the cost of reeducating them. In this study, Indonesia’s current health policy will be examined and its problems will be revealed. The country’s current nurse migration policy, which is changing under the national goal of human resource development and the increase of out-migration after the Asian economic crisis, will be reported. Finally, the prospects for further changes in the nurse migration policy and challenges it faces will be discussed.
This paper discusses Vietnam’s out-migration policy and the current situations of its overseas workers, and the impact of out-migration on the regional development of the regions where the migrants come from. The paper also discusses the prospects for sending nurses and caregivers to Japan from Vietnam, which is about to start at the time of writing this paper. Vietnam dispatched workers mainly to East European countries before 1991 through official channels, based on intergovernmental contracts with these countries. Since 1991, out-migration of workers from Vietnam has been based on contracts between private companies. Out-migration has contributed to the Vietnamese economy and to regional development. In 2013 alone, Vietnam sent about 90,000 workers to Taiwan, Malaysia and Korea. The Vietnamese government has been encouraging out-migration, because it will contribute to reducing poverty, developing regional economies, and fostering international cooperation. Although the total number of overseas Vietnamese workers is far less than those of Filipinos and Indonesians, the number of Vietnamese workers sometimes exceeds those of Filipinos and Indonesians in Taiwan, Korea and Japan. The most important destination in 2013 was Taiwan, which absorbed 40,000 Vietnamese workers, or 45% of all workers that left the country in that year. On the other hand, Korea, which had also been an important destination for overseas Vietnamese workers, stopped the acceptance of the Vietnamese. The incidence of out-migration is high in some particular districts. Nghe An province, which is one of such districts, received US$ 85 million in 2009 as remittances from the 45,000 workers who went abroad from this province. The amount of remittance was equivalent to 50% of the provincial government’s total revenue. The most important destinations for overseas workers from Nghe An province are Taiwan and Malaysia, accounting for 30~40% of all overseas workers from Nghe An. Work experiences in foreign countries, however, did not contribute so much to transferring modern industrial techniques to the workers’ origins, because almost all of the returnees engage in farming after returning home. Based on the economic partnership agreement (EPA) between Japan and Vietnam, the first batch of the candidates for nurses and caregivers from Vietnam will come to Japan in June 2014. These nurses and caregivers come from the same regions where other types of overseas workers come from. Considering the insufficiency of medical staff, especially highly educated nurses, in Vietnam, the out-migration of nurses may have a detrimental impact on the domestic supply of medical services. Besides this, the candidates from Vietnam may not be able to pass the examination necessary to work as qualified nurses in Japan, considering the low rate for Filipino and Indonesian candidates—who came to Japan earlier—to pass the examination. Even with these problems, we can still conclude that out-migration has positive impacts on Vietnamese regional development. The knowledge and experiences acquired by the candidates for nurses and caregivers who are about to start their training in Japan will contribute to the development of medical services in Vietnam.