Conventional arguments regarding the attitude of the Chinese populace toward the 2012 anti-Japanese demonstrations in China speculate on the characteristics and motivations of participants in anti-Japanese protests by observing their participation. By conducting surveys with average citizens at their residences immediately prior to anti-Japanese demonstrations rather than observing actual participants demonstrating on the street, this study sheds light on what regions and what types of people have the strongest inclination to demonstrate. First, it became clear that, prior to the occurrence of anti-Japanese demonstrations in 2012, different regions and income brackets differed in their inclination to demonstrate. On the whole, a trend of strong inclination to demonstrate was observed in the eastern region, where economic development is relatively advanced. Additionally, a strong inclination to demonstrate was observed among low-income individuals overall. A variety of factors increases a person’s inclination to demonstrate. A negative attitude toward Japan and a high level of patriotism are the factors that most increase inclination to demonstrate. Further, dissatisfaction with societal inequality and the belief that China protects freedom of speech are also factors that add to the inclination to demonstrate.
The confrontation between China and India concerning water resources in the Brahmaputra River (known as “Yarlung Zangbo” in Chinese), which flows through both countries, has been deepening in recent years. There have also been diplomatic negotiations between the two countries. This study aims to analyze the conflict and cooperation over the Brahmaputra’s waters. First, the study describes the South–North Water Transfer Project, a multi-decade Chinese infrastructure mega-project that aims to channel the abundance of fresh water from southern China to the more arid north through canal systems. One development included in a western route of this project involves expanding the Brahmaputra. Ten dams have already been completed on this river, and China plans to build the world’s largest dam, even larger than the Three Gorges Dam, on the Brahmaputra. India fears that the project will have a significant impact on the lower river region. Second, the study considers both India’s protest as a lower riparian country and China’s reaction as an upper riparian country. Even though India’s fisheries industry and ecological system are affected by Chinese development on the river, China did not publicly acknowledge its development activities until 2010. Instead it pursued what could be called a silent strategy. Since admitting the project’s existence, China has sought to minimize the impact on downstream countries. However, the initial silent strategy has clearly amplified distrust on the Indian side. Third, the study considers steps toward a cooperative relationship between the two countries. Although there is no binding legal agreement, China and India have established an expert-level committee and provided hydrological information to each other. They have also signed a memorandum of understanding that will guide expansion of their cooperative relationship. As a guide to future work, the study indicates the immaturity of international standards and law to settle a conflict concerning an international river. In this respect, it is important to analyze the applicability of “the Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses,” which entered into force in August 2014. Furthermore, the study indicates that there is a third country, Bangladesh, with concerns regarding the Brahmaputra’s resources. A water allocation agreement has been signed between India and Bangladesh. When we emphasize only the aspects of conflict taking place regarding this international river, it appears that two large Asian countries are heading toward a collision. However, as shown in this study, China and India are trying to build a cooperative relationship. This situation can be perceived as a case study in international trust-building.