This paper discusses how China’s relations with other nations, especially with Soviet Russia had an impact on the Anti-Christian Movement in the year of 1922 in China. The Anti-Christian Movement started with the establishment of the Anti-Christian Student Federation (Fei Chituchiao hsüehsheng t’ungmeng). The main purpose of this federation was to protest against the 11th conference of the World Student Christian Federation (WSCF) at Tsinghua College in Beijing. Previous studies have revealed that the federation was formed by the Socialist Youth Corp in Shanghai. But the debate still continues at the motivation of the federation to start the Anti-Christian Movement. Its relationship with the Great Federation of Anti-Religionists (Fei tsungchiao ta t’ungmeng), another (anti-Christian) federation that had a nationwide influence, has not been fully figured out yet.
The present study, examining publications such as newspapers of the time and memoirs, clarifies that: 1) anti-capitalism and anti-Christian thought expressed in the Congress of the Toilers of the Far East and the Congress of the Revolutionist Organizations of the Far East were the significant factors which drove the Chinese communists to the Anti-Christian Movement. Considering the fact that the two congresses were held in Soviet Russia against the Washington Conference, the Anti-Christian Movement in 1922, in a sense, was the manifestation of the conflict between Russian Bolshevism and American Protestantism in China; 2) unlike Anti-Christian Student Federation which was founded on socialist ideology in Shanghai, the Great Federation of Anti-Religionists in Beijing was grounded on the Anti-Religion Thought, which emerged during the time of the May Fourth Movement and the New Culture Movement. It was, however, the communists who took a leading role in the formation of both federations. And they listened to the intention of the leading Socialist Youth Corp in Shanghai; 3) one of the significant factors which contributed to the expansion of the Anti-Christian Movement among students and intellectuals throughout China was the Anti-Religion Thought, which was influenced by an enlightenment thought during the New Culture Movement (Renaissance) among Chinese intellectuals. It may be said that the Anti-Christian Movement was an direct extention of the enlightenment movement started by the New Culture Movement. It became increasingly radicalized, however, as communists began to participate in it with political purposes; 4) the radical anti-capitalistic and anti-Christian thought was finally formulated by the resolusion of the 1st Conference of the Social Youth Corp in Guangzhou in May 1922. Then after the First United Front, the radical thought further spread to the Chinese Nationalist Party (the Kuomintang).
The spatial economics field, explained comprehensively by Fujita, Krugman, and Venables (2000), as well as the emergence of regional integration represented by the European Union and the theory of industrial clusters proposed by Porter, have attracted the intense attention of economists concerned with the agglomerative economy. Based on spatial economics, substantial empirical analysis has subsequently been conducted on Europe and America. Under the trend of globalization, increasing research attention is being paid to Chinese industrial aggregation.
Researchers such as Marugawa (2008, 2011), Hioki (2010), and Kato and Hioki (2012) have focused on the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta Region, where industrial clusters are significant and where industrial aggregation takes place at the township level. However, these studies consider specific regions of China, whereas it can be speculated that there is significant industrial aggregation in other regions as well. As Chen (2014) highlighted, “present studies of China are all at the provincial level and are of two-digit classified industries and it is difficult to investigate the overall condition.”
The objective of this study is to conduct a comprehensive quantitative analysis on whole-industry agglomeration in China and to locate industrial aggregation. To this end, it is necessary to consider the whole of China as the research area. Simultaneously, industrial concentrations that were not considered in previous studies also need to be identified. In this study, two subordinate concepts, that is, industrial aggregation and industrial concentration, are conclusively defined based on the above questions. Both of them are combined and defined as an industrial cluster. In addition, this study performs three-digit classification, identifies the industrial clusters in the county formed by enterprises located on Chinese mainland in 1998 and 2008, and observes the change over this period.
The results of the analysis are as follows. (i) From 1998 to 2008, an increase in industrial aggregation was the main contributing factor to the increase in the industrial clusters of China. (ii) Different industrial analyses indicate that between 1998 and 2008, the geographic concentration of 145 among 159 industries as well as the spatial autocorrelation of 88 industries increased. (iii) For the different regions, from 1998 to 2008, industrial aggregation in coastal regions dominated by the Yangtze River Delta increased steadily. (iv) The main force around the Bohai Rim region was industrial concentration-oriented, while that around the Yangtze River Delta was oriented toward industry aggregation. Finally, an investigation of data on high-tech industries reveals that the industrial clusters of such industries were distributed equally in island areas in 1998; however, by 2008, the industrial clusters had rapidly increased in the coastal region such as the Bohai Rim region, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta.