To reveal the factors that influence web-intrusion frequency by other web-building spiders, I investigated seasonal changes in the frequency of intrusion by spiders into webs abandoned by Metleucaugekompirensis (Tetragnathidae). I analyzed the effects of various conditions, including the size and density of host webs, and the life histories of intruding species. Intruders were mainly Tetragnatha praedonia of various size-classes, as well as small individuals of M. kompirensis. The average number of intruders per web was low between April and June because of the low density of intruding species and the high density of host webs. Thus, competition among intruders was probably not intense during this time. Early in the season, most insects remained in host webs were not consumed by intruders during the daytime, but may have been consumed with web silks by the web owners in the evening, before they constructed new webs. On the other hand, the average number of intruders per web was very large between July and early September. This may have been due to the low density of host webs and the emergence of newly born M. kompirensis spiderlings. The average number of insects remaining in webs during the daytime was low, as most insects were removed by intruders in the morning, when there was strong competition among intruders. Thus, the frequency of intrusion seems to depend primarily on the density of host webs and the density of intruding species.
This paper starts a revisional study of Chinese Sparassidae. A total of three subfamilies, eight genera and 53 species is known so far from China. Detailed data on type material of each species with references and known distribution are given. Following species are transferred to other genera: Olios menghaiensis (Wang 1990) COMB. NOV. (from Heteropoda), Olios nanningensis (Hu & Ru 1988) COMB. NOV. (from Micrommata), Olios tiantongensis (Zhang & Kim 1996) COMB. NOV (from Heteropoda), Pseudopodabibulba (Xu & Yin 2000) COMB. NOV. (from Heteropoda), Pseudopoda marsupia (Wang 1991) COMB. NOV. (from Sinopoda), Sinopoda dayong (Bao, Yin & Yan 2000) COMB. NOV. (from Heteropoda), and Sinopoda himalayica (Hu & Li 1987) COMB. NOV. (from Heteropoda). Following synonyms are recognized: Heteropoda guangdongensis Yin, Yan & Kim 2000=Olios nanningensis (Hu & Ru 1988) SYN. NOV., Micrommata hainanensis He & Hu 2000=Olios nanningensis (Hu & Ru 1988) SYN. NOV., Heteropodashimen Yin, Peng, Yan & Bao 2000=Heteropoda venatoria (Linnaeus 1767) SYN. NOV., Thelcticopisjiulongensis Zhang & Kim 1996=Thelcticopis severa (L. Koch 1875) SYN. NOV. Syntypes, lectotypes and paralectotypes of the following species are designated: Pseudopoda exiguoides (Song & Zhu 1999), Sinopodapengi Song & Zhu 1999, Sinopoda wangi Song & Zhu 1999. Heteropoda zhangi Song & Zhu 1999 is a nomen nudum.
Gnaphosa banini sp. n. (_??__??_) from Mongolia, belonging to the borea species group, is described and diagnostic drawings of males of the borea group are given: borea Kulczynski 1908, chola Ovtsharenko & Marusik 1988, microps Holm 1939 and orites Chamberlin 1922. Males of G. ilika Ovtsharenko et al. 1992 and G. pseudoleporina Ovtsharenko et al. 1992 are illustrated. Biogeographically interesting records are given for nine additional species of Gnaphosa from the eastern Palaearctic.
The linyphiid genus Procerocymbium Eskov 1989 and its type species P. sibiricum Eskov 1989 are redescribed and three new species are described: P. jeniseicum (_??__??_, Middle Siberia), P. buryaticum (_??_, Transbaikalia & South Yakutia) and P. dondalei. (_??_, Yukon Territory). Relationships of the genus to some other erigonine genera are discussed.
A revision of the Japanese genera and species of the subfamily Theridiinae Sundevall 1833 (Araneae: Theridiidae) is given. Hooded paracymbium of male palpus and absence of colulus characterize Theridiinae. Monetinae Simon 1894 and Spintharinae Simon 1894 are newly synonymized with Theridiinae. Keys to the subfamilies of Theridiidae and the genera of Theridiinae are given. Two genera, Paidiscura Archer 1950 and Rugathodes Archer 1950, are newly recorded from Japan and three new genera, Nipponidion, Takayus and Kejia, are described. Eleven species are newly transferred from Theridion to those genera: P. subpallens (Bösenberg & Strand 1906), R. nigrolimbata (Yaginuma 1972), N. yaeyamense (Yoshida 1993), Ta. takayensis (S. Saito 1939), Ta. chikunii (Yaginuma 1960), Ta. latifolius (Yaginuma 1960), Ta. yunohamensis (Bösenberg & Strand 1906), Ta. subadultus (Bösenberg & Strand 1906), Ta. lyricus (Walckenaer 1842), K. sterninotata (Bösenberg & Strand 1906) and K. mneon (Bösenberg & Strand 1906). Three new species are described: Nipponidion okinawense, Keijia maculata and Theridula iriomotensis. Theridula albipes S. Saito 1935 described from Sakhalin is newly transferred to Chrysso. Three species names, Chrysso venusta (Yaginuma 1957), C. rapula (Yaginuma 1960) and Theridion adamsoni Berland 1934, are newly synonymized with C. scintillans (Thorell 1895), C. albipes and Keijia mneon, respectively. Neotype of Takayus takayensis (S. Saito 1939) is designated. Fifteen Chinese or American species of Theridion are newly transferred to the other genera as follows: Takayus kunmingicus (Zhu 1998), Ta. naevius (Zhu 1998), Ta. lushanensis (Zhu 1998), Ta. xui (Zhu 1998), Ta. linimaculatus (Zhu 1998), Ta. wangi (Zhu 1998), Ta. sublatifolius (Zhu 1998), Ta. lunulatus (Guan & Zhu 1993), Ta. huanrenensis(Zhu & Gao 1993), Ta. quadrimaculatus (Song & Kim 1991), Keijia qionghaiensis (Zhu 1998), K. tincta (Walkenaer 1802), K. antoni (Keyserling 1884), K. alabamensis (Gertsch & Archer 1942) and K. punctosparsa (Emerton 1882), . Three species names, Theridion argyrodiforme Bösenberg & Strand 1906, Th. indicis Bösenberg & Strand 1906 and Th. sagaphilum Strand 1916, are treated as nomina dubia.
Three theridiid genera, Rhomphaea L. Koch 1872, Ariamnes Thorell 1869 and Spheropistha Yaginuma 1957, are resurrected, and they are treated under a subfamily together with the genus Argyrodes. Conopisthinae Archer 1950 is newly synonymized with Argyrodinae Simon 1894. Keys to the genera of Argyrodinae and the species of Rhomphaea are given. In the genus Rhomphaea four species are recorded from Japan. Of these, two species, R. hyrcana (Logunov & Marusik 1990) and R. labiata (Zhu & Song 1991), are newly transferred from Argyrodes, and the former is recorded from Japan for the first time. A new species, R. tanikawai, is described from Iriomote Island, the Nansei Islands. Three species of Spheropistha, S. miyashitai (Tanikawa 1998) described from Japan, S. nigroris (Yoshida et al. 2000) and S. orbita (Zhu 1998) described from China, are newly transferred from Argyrodes. Argyrodes gansuensis Zhu 1998 described from China is newly synonymized with A. fur (Bösenberg & Strand 1906). One species name, Argyrodes silvicola S. Saito 1934, is treated as nomen dubium. A list of the Japanese species of the subfamily Argyrodinae is given.
Two genera of the family Gnaphosidae are reported. A new genus Sanitubius is described, and Sanitubius anatolicus (Kamura 1989) n. comb. is transferred from Herpyllus to the new genus. Kishidaia Yaginuma 1960 is revived from a synonym of Poecilochroa Westring 1874 and redescribed. Two species, Kishidaia conspicua (L. Koch 1866) n. comb. and K. coreana (Paik 1992) n. comb., are transferred from Poecilochroa to Kishidaia. Sanitubius anatolicus, Kishidaia albimaculata (S. Saito 1934) and K. conspicua are illustrated.