The life history of a tetragnathid species, Tetragnatha praedonia was studied by both periodical field collectings and rearing spiders in the laboratory. Newly hatched spiderlings emerged repeatedly between June and September. Five spiders (two males and three females) were reared to adulthood. The developmental time from emergence to the adult molt was 57-59 days for males and 47-51 days for females. The repeated emergence of newly hatched spiderlings and the short life span suggest that T. praedonia has a turnover rate of a few generations per year.
The parasitoid wasp Eriostethus rufus (Uchida, 1932) was reported to parasitize orb-web Araneoidea spiders of the genus Araneus. However, we found a larva of E. rufus parasitizing an orb-web Araneoidea spider of another genus, Neoscona. The relationships between E. rufus and its host spiders should be re-examined.
Japanese genera and species of the subfamily Hadrotarsinae Thorell 1881 (Araneae: Theridiidae) are revised. The presence of specialized ventral setae of first tarsi, two pairs of seminal receptacles and a dorso-ventrally flattened craw of female palpus characterize Hadrotarsinae. A key to the genera of Hadrotarsinae is given. Nineteen species belonging to six genera of Hadrotarsinae are recorded from Japan. A new genus, Yaginumena, is described. Two genera, Trigonobothrys Simon 1889 and Emertonella Bryant 1949, are resurrected, and a genus, Lasaeola Simon 1881, is recorded from Japan for the first time. Twelve species are newly transferred from Dipoena Thorell 1869 to those genera: Yaginumena castrata (Bösenberg & Strand 1906), Y. mutilata (Bösenberg & Strand 1906), Y. maculosa (Yoshida & Ono 2000), Lasaeloa okinawana (Yoshida & Ono 2000), L. yoshidai (Ono 1991), L. yona (Yoshida & Ono 2000), Trigonobothrys japonicus (Yoshida 1985), T. amamiensis (Yoshida 1985), T. martinae (Roberts 1983), T. flavomarginatus (Bösenberg & Strand 1906), T. mustelinus (Simon 1889) and T. nigromaculatus(Yoshida 1987); and a species from Euryopis Menge 1868: Emertonella taczanowskii (Keyserling 1886). A new species, Dipoena nipponica, is described from Iriomote Is., the Nansei Islands. A species, Dipoena immaculata Zhu 1998 described from China, is newly synonymized with T. flavomarginatus, and a genus, Pselothorax Chamberlin 1948, with Lasaeola.
Tetranychus takafujii Ehara & Ohashi sp. nov. is described from the black nightshade, Solanumnigrum L. (Solanaceae) in Osaka. This new mite was found to severely attack S. nigrum, S. carolinense L. (horse nettle), and S. melongena L. (eggplant) in Osaka and Kyoto.
Two new species of the spider family Sparassidae are described from China: Sinopoda angulata (female; Hubei Prov.) and Sinopoda fasciculata (male; Guizhou Prov.). Pseudopoda sp. cf. exiguoides (Song & Zhu 1999) is recorded from Hunan Prov. (females). One undetermined Pseudopoda species is recorded from Sichuan Prov. (female). Heteropoda venatoria (Linnaeus 1767) is recorded from Guangdong Prov. and Yunnan Prov. respectively. Micrommata virescens (Clerck 1757) is recorded for the first time in Jilin Province. Two males of Olios sp. are recorded from Jiangsu Prov. and Hunan Prov. respectively, probably conspecific with Olios tiantongensis (Zhang & Kim 1996). One female of Olios sp. is recorded from Yunnan Prov, probably conspecific with Olios menghaiensis (Wang & Zhang 1990). Olios sanguinifrons (Simon 1906) COMB. NOV. is transferred from the genus Eusparassus to Olios. The female is described for the first time. Genitalia of all species are illustrated.
New taxonomical and systematical results concerning the subfamily Heteropodinae are presented. The following new synyonyms are recognized: Adrastis Simon 1880, Panaretus Simon 1880, Parhedrus Simon 1887 are junior synyonyms of Heteropoda Latreille 1804. Adrastis atomaria Simon 1880 =Heteropoda boiei (Doleschall 1859); Parhedrus fasciatus Reimoser 1927=Heteropoda ocyalina (Simon 1887); Heteropoda holzi Strand 1907, Tortula gloriosa Simon 1880, Tortula simoni Karsch 1884, Holconiabeccarii Thorell 1890, Isopeda beccarii malangana Strand 1907=Heteropoda lunula (Doleschall 1857); Olios freycineti Walckenaer 1837, Olios albifrons Lucas 1852, Helicopis maderiana Thorell 1875, Palystesledleyi Hogg 1922, Heteropoda venatoria pluridentata Hogg 1914=Heteropoda venatoria (Linnaeus 1767); Spariolenus petricola Gravely 1931=Spariolenus tigris Simon 1880. The following taxa are transferred from Heteropoda (Torania) to Barylestis: B. fagei (Lessert 1929), B. montandoni (Lessert 1929), B. occidentalis (Simon 1887), B. scutatus (Pocock 1903) and B. variatus (Pocock 1899). The following taxa are transferred from Adrastis to Heteropoda: H. lashbrooki (Hogg 1922), H. murina (Pocock 1897), H. planiceps (Pocock 1897) and H. spinipes (Pocock 1897). The following taxa are transferred from Panaretus to Heteropoda: H. borneensis (Thorell 1890), H. chelata (Strand 1911), H. chelata vittichelis (Strand 1911), H. ignichelis (Simon 1880), H. javana (Simon 1880) and H. nirounensis (Simon 1903). The following species is transferred from Parhedrus to Heteropoda: H. ocyalina (Simon 1887). The following taxa are transferred from Torania to Heteropoda: H. armillata (Thorell 1887) and H. striatipes (Leardi 1901). Heteropoda lunula (Doleschall 1857) is removed from the synonymy of Heteropoda thoracica (C.L. Koch 1845). Heteropoda strandi new name is proposed (Heteropoda panaretiformis preoccupied by Strand 1906). The following species formerly attributed as subspecies to Heteropoda venatoria are elevated to species rank: H. bonthainensis Merian 1911, H. flavocephala Merian 1911, H. luwuensis Merian 1911, H. minahassae Merian 1911, H. montana Merian 1911 and H. striata Merian 1911. The genus Hoedillus Simon 1898 with its type species Hoedillussexpunctatus Simon 1898 is transferred to the Zoridae. The following species is transferred from Adrastis to Pandercetes: P. nigrogularis (Simon 1897). The following taxa are transferred from Heteropoda to Pseudopoda: P. akashi (Sethi & Tikader 1988) and P. lutea (Thorell 1895). The following species is transferred from Heteropoda to Spariolenus: S. minusculus (Reimoser 1934). Lectotypes and paralectotypes of the following species are designated for reasons of stability: Heteropoda borneensis (Thorell 1890), Oliosfreycineti Walckenaer 1837, Palystes ledleyi Hogg 1922 and Spariolenus minusculus (Reimoser 1934). The following species are recorded for the particular countries for the first time: Barylestis occidentalis (Simon 1887) for Sudan, B. montandoni (Lessert 1929) for Uganda, B. fagei (Lessert 1929) for Ruanda, Heteropodajavana (Simon 1880) for Sumatra, H. boiei (Doleschall 1859) for Malaysia and H. lunula (Doleschall 1857) for Borneo. If available, genitalia and important somatical characters of involved species are illustrated.
The wolf spider species Pardosa solituda Levi & Levi (Nearctic: Rocky Mountains) and Pardosa sterneri Marusik (Palearctic: Mongolia, South Siberia) are redescribed and illustrated, the female of the latter described for the first time. The two species are closely allied by the conformation of the copulatory organs. The males share the condition of having a lanate pubescence on the tibiae and metatarsi of the first and second legs. The cuticle of these leg segments is equipped with an abundance of pores of a type presumably associated with excretion of some semiochemical substance. Both species are here transferred to the genus Acantholycosa.