Juveniles of a nematode belonging to the family Mermithidae were found from wolf spiders, Pardosa pseudoannulata, collected in a paddy field in Kyoto, Japan. Their morphological characteristics are briefly reported along with some ecological notes. This is the first record of a mermithid from P. pseudoannulata.
A soil-dwelling crab spider, Oxyptila atomaria (Panzer 1801) (Araneae: Thomisidae), is newly recorded from Japan based on specimens recently collected in Hokkaido mainly by pit fall trapping. A description of the spider is presented with illustrations of its female genitalia and male palpal organ. Although this species is widely distributed in northern Eurasia from Europe to Siberia, Sakhalin, Korea and Japan, it seems much rarer in the eastern part.
A review of the subfamily Opilioninae, with several new combinations and many synonyms -based mainly on type material or original descriptions is presented. The subfamily, as delimited here, consists of following genera: Bidentolophus, Egaenus, Himalphalangium, Homolophus, Opilio, and Scleropilio. Most genera and species are distributed in Central and East Asia, with only few species reaching West Asia and Europe. There are following new combinations: Egaenus pakistanus (Rwr.), Himalphangium spinulatum (Rwr.), Homolophus serrulatus (Ksch.), Bidentolophus adungius (Rwr.), Homolophus consputus (Sim.), H. nigridorsus (Cap.), H. turcicus (Rwr.) [the last three not quite clear], H. martensi (Star.) and new synonyms: Egaenus carpaticus Avram = E. convexus (C.L.K.), Euphalangium afghanum Rwr. and Euphalangiumchitralense Rwr. = Egaenus kashmiricus Cap., Opilio nigerrimus Schkl. = Himalphalangium spinulatum (Rwr.), Phalangium tricolor Kulcz., Phalangium bidentatum Kulcz., Opilio Kishidai Saito, O. quadridentatus Wang and O. tricolor var. modestus Schkl. = Homolophus serrulatus (Ksch.), Opilio hexa-spinulatus Saito and Opilio koreanus Charit. = Bidentolophus bidens (Sim.), Opilio birmanicus Rwr. = Bidentolophusadungius (Rwr.), Opilio sunuitensis Nakats. and O. nipponensis Rwr. = Homolophus arcticus Bks., Euphalangium trinkleri Rwr. and Opilio insolitus Rwr. = Homolophus tibetanus (Rwr.), Phalangiumcoronatum Red. and Opilio redikorzevi Rwr. = O. lederi Rwr., O. turcicus Rwr. = O. saxatilis C.L.K., O. reginae Star. = O. hemseni Rwr., Egaenus rugosus Schkl. = Scleropilio insolens (Sim.).
Four known species, Cybaeus miyosii Yaginuma 1941, C. okafujii Yaginuma 1963, C. kumaensis Irie & Ono 2001 and C. hibaensis Ihara 1994, and two new species, C. kunisakiensis and C. tsurugi are described as the miyosii-group in the genus Cybaeus (Cybaeidae). These six species are small to medium in size and pale in color compared to other species of each of the local species assemblages. The miyosii-group is distributed over western Japan, corresponding to the Chugoku district (western Honshu), Shikoku and Kyushu. Each species of the group occupies a fragment within an overall geographic range of the group. Since these six species show close similarities in external morphology and they are parapatric in their distribution, they can be recognized as a single superspecies.
Four new species of the genus Malaconothrus Berlese 1916 from South Africa and Lesotho are described (Malaconothrus minimus sp. nov., Malaconothrus longidorsus sp. nov., Malaconothrusengelbrechti sp. nov. and Malaconothrus stigmatus sp. nov.) and a description of the South African representatives of the species Malaconothrus indifferens Hammer 1966 is given.