In many arthropod species, the gut contains exogenous ice nucleators. These substances might be transmitted to spiders through predation and cause ice formation in the spider's alimentary canal. To test this hypothesis, supercooling point (SCP) of the house spider, Achaearanea tepidariorum that ate either the whole body of Porcellio scaber or only the isolated gut by way of cricket were compared. Ingestion of the cricket that had fed isopod's gut elevated the spider's SCP from about -15°C to -9°C and this effect was comparable to that of whole body of the isopod. The supercooling ability of A. tepidariorum is thus limited by ice nucleators present at least in the gut of prey animals.
Composition and biomass of the millipede, Xenobolus carnifex population in two huts of Anaiyur village, Madurai were estimated by direct observation. Data on rates of feeding, assimilation and conversion obtained in the laboratory were applied to estimate the rates and efficiencies of energy flow from the reed (Aristida sativa) through the X. carnifex population during 1997-2000. Ecological and exploitation efficiencies increased from 0.289 to 0.480% and 19.5 to 33.7% during the study period. An average of 257,947 kJ/m2/year reed energy was available in the roof. Of this over 25% was channeled through X. carnifex population. The millipede delivered over about 69% of the ingested reed energy as feces, which supported coprophagus insects, which coexisted in the roof. The millipede population lost about 30% of the ingested energy on metabolism and converted at the rate of 943 kJ/m2/year. An energy flow model has been drawn and discussed in the light of information available in the literature.
To clarify the foraging strategy of nocturnal orb-web spiders, we examined the relationship between prey items and foraging traits in four Neoscona species that spin typical orb-webs. Taxonomic composition of prey differed markedly among species; beetles occupied about 50% of prey in N. punctigera and N. scylla. As beetles are generally heavier than other prey, these differences could be due to the differences in kinetic energy absorption ability of webs and/or web stickiness. Comparison of the sympatric two species (Neosocna punctigera and N. mellotteei) with similar body size supported the above inference; mesh density and silk stickiness were higher in N. punctigera that captured more beetles, while microhabitat and other foraging traits were similar. These results suggest specialization to beetles in some nocturnal orb-web spiders.
The Japanese spiders of the genus Agelena are revised. The occurrence of A. limbata Thorell 1897, A. opulenta Koch 1878, and A. labylinthica (Clerck 1757) are recomfirmed. A. donggukensis Kim 1996 is newly recorded from Japan and the male of the species is described for the first time. A new species, A. babai, is described based on the specimens collected from Amami-ôshima Is. of the Ryukyus.
Eight species of the mite family Phytoseiidae are reported from West Java, Indonesia. Indoseiulus santosoi sp. nov. is described and figured from a fabaceous climbing plant at Cianjur. Euseius ovalis (Evans), Paraphytoseius seychellensis Schicha & Corpuz-Raros, Indoseiulus armellae (Schicha & Gutierrez), and Phytoseius (Dubininellus) rachelae Swirski & Shechter are recorded for the first time in Java. Redescriptions are given of I. armellae and a previously recorded species, Flagroseius euflagellatus (Karg).
Two new species of the genus Bhutaniella are described from China (Tibet and Yunnan Province): Bhutaniella scharffi sp. nov. (male holotype) and Bhutaniella kronestedti sp. nov. (female holotype). The new species belong to a genus previously known from a restricted area in the Himalayan region and exclusively from higher altitudes (950-2400). It is the first time that representatives of this genus are recorded from China. They extend the distribution range of Bhutaniella considerably to the east.
Three species of the families Corinnidae and Liocranidae from Taiwan are described and illustrated. Among them, the corinnid species Oedignatha scrobiculata Thorell 1881 is newly recorded from Taiwan, and two species are new to science and are named Orthobula spiniformis (Corinnidae) and Sphingius pingtung (Liocranidae).
We investigated opilionid fauna of the Oki Islands (Shimane Prefecture) in the Sea of Japan for the first time. As a result, a total of 14 species were collected from the four main islands (12, 4, 4, and 6 species from Is. Dôgo, Is. Nakanoshima, Is. Nishinoshima, and Is. Chiburi, respectively). A list of the species with some taxonomical notes is presented. Opilionid fauna of the islands may be characterized by: 1) the absence of some species which are commonly found in the San'in area of the mainland Honshu such as Gagrellula ferruginea Loman, and Nelima satoi Suzuki; 2) occurrence of some species that indicate the circum-Japan Sea distribution, such as Leiobunum rubrum Suzuki and Melanopa grandis Roewer; 3) occurrence of some species showing geographical differentiation, though there are no endemic forms at the species level; and 4) affinity to the mainland area around Mt. Daisen (Tottori Pref.) rather than mainland areas of the Shimane Prefecture in the species composition; 5) The numbers of species found on the islands generally exceed those expected from the species-area relationship in and around Japanese Islands. Leiobunum wegneri Šilhavý 1976 described from North Korea is newly synonymized with Leiobunum japonicum japonicum Müller 1914. Likewise, Metagagrella damila Šilhavý 1976 and Gagrella crassitarsi Ha et al. 2004, both originally described from Korean Peninsula, are synonymized with Melanopa grandis Roewer 1910. Two Korean species recently recorded under the names Leiobunum rotundum (Latreille 1798) and Leiobunum rupestre (Herbst 1799) by Ha et al. (2004, Korean Arachnology, 20: 53-71) from Korea are misidentifications of Leiobunum japonicum japonicum and Odiellus aspersus (Karsch 1881), respectively.