The taxonomic diversity and biological features of plant species used for nest-building by the Japanese foliage spider Cheiracanthium japonicum were examined. The spider builds three types of nests in its life cycle, namely, for molting, mating, and breeding, using a plant leaf. In total, 23 plant species of 21 genera in seven families were recorded as plants used by C. japonicum. Twenty species among the 23 species were recorded for the first time. Most of these plants were classified in the families Poaceae and Asteraceae. The number of plant species was the highest for the molting nest and the lowest for the breeding nest. As nest types changed from molting to breeding, the number of plant species used for nest-building decreased sharply, and adult female spiders used poaceous plants almost exclusively to build a breeding nest because their leaves are larger and longer than those of the other plant taxa. Of the three types of nests, the breeding nest was barrel-shaped, and the poaceous species was considered to be the most suitable for C. japonicum to build a barrel-shaped breeding nest.
Collections of 22 species of harvestmen are reported from Turkey. Three are new to science: Histricostoma mitovi sp. n., H. gruberi sp. n. and Egaenus turcicus sp. n. Three species, Odiellus zecariensis Mkheidze 1952, Opilio insulae Roewer 1956 and Opilio sp., are reported from Turkey for the first time. Illustrated descriptions are provided for new and poorly known species.
A new species, Isometrus (Reddyanus) lao sp. n., is described from the northern region of Luang-Prabang, Laos. Differences in coloration and morphometric values of the Isometrus species described from Southeast Asia attest to a micro-endemic distribution pattern. Comments on the other Isometrus species of Southeast Asia are proposed and comparative illustrations and morphometric values are also added.
Spider collections from Laos, especially from Oudomxai and Bolikhamsay Provinces, are investigated. One new species of the family Corinnidae is described: Serendib muadai spec. nov. (male, female) from Bolikhamsay Province. Seventeen species are newly recorded from Laos: Macrothele bannaensis Xu & Yin 2001, Cyclocosmia siamensis Schwendinger 2005, Pseudanapis parocula (Simon 1899), Neriene macella (Thorell 1898), Tetragnatha hasselti Thorell 1890, Cyrtophora cylindroides (Walckenaer 1841), Larinia phthisica (L. Koch 1871), Cheiracanthium insigne O. Pickard-Cambridge 1874, Corinnomma severum (Thorell 1877), Oedignatha scrobiculata Thorell 1881, Pranburia mahannopi Deeleman-Reinhold 1993, Cebrenninus rugosus Simon 1887, Bianor incitatus Thorell 1890, Hasarius adansoni (Audouin 1826), Hyllus diardi (Walckenaer 1837), Thiania bhamoensis Thorell 1887, and Thyene imperialis (Rossi 1846). Further records are listed, and new records and descriptions from papers published recently on material collected in Laos are reported. The total number of Lao spider species amounts currently to 225 species. Beside true spiders, the second record of Typopeltis magnificus Haupt 2004 is recorded from Laos.
A new species of the genus Paratheuma (Agelenidae) is described from the coast of Awase, Okinawa City, Okinawajima Island, Japan under the name, Paratheuma awasensis sp. nov. The aspect and color of the bodies of both the sexes of this new species resemble those of Paratheuma shirahamaensis (Oi 1960) and P. insulana (Banks 1902) hitherto recorded from Japan, but is clearly distinguished not only from these Japanese species but also from all the known species of the genus by the shape of distal processes of male palpal conductor, the shape of epigynum and female genitalia, the number of marginal teeth of cheliceral fang furrow, and the size of body. Spiders of the new species were collected from underside of holey coral stones on tidal flats of the coast of Awase, Okinawa City. They weave retreats with a sheet web in the cavities of stones.