Postoperative acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections is highly fatal complication. Many literatures have documented cancer to be the highest risk factor for acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections. Early diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism is highly recommended and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography is the gold standard in diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants and thrombolytic therapy have shown a great success in treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Surgical therapies (embolectomy and inferior vena cava filter replacement) proved to be lifesaving but many literatures favored medical therapy as the first choice. Prophylaxis pre and post operation is highly recommended, because there were statistical significant results in different studies which supported the use of prophylaxis in prevention of acute pulmonary embolism.Having reviewed satisfactory number of literatures, it is suggested that thoroughly preoperative assessment of patient conditions, determining their risk factors complicating to pulmonary embolism and the use of appropriate prophylaxis measures are the key options to the successful minimization or eradication of acute pulmonary embolism after lung resections.
Prosthetic vascular graft infection in the thoracic aortic area is a rare but serious complication. Adequate management of the complication is essential to increase the chance of success of open surgery. While surgical site infection is suggested as the root cause of the complication, it is also related to decreased host tolerance, especially as found in elderly patients. The handling of prosthetic vascular graft infection has been widely discussed to date. This paper mainly provides a summary of literature reports published within the past 5 years to discuss issues related to multidisciplinary treatment approaches, including surgical site infection, timing of onset, diagnostic methods, causative pathogens, auxiliary diagnostic methods, antibiotic treatment, anti-infective structures of vascular prostheses, surgical treatment, treatment strategy against infectious aortic aneurysms, future surgical treatment, postoperative systemic therapy, and antimicrobial stewardship. A thorough understanding of these issues will enable us to prevent prosthetic vascular graft infection in the thoracic aortic area as far as possible. In the event of its occurrence, the early introduction of appropriate treatment is expected to cure the disease without worsening of the underlying pathological condition.
Objectives: The indications for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for advanced-stage lung cancer are expanding, but the criteria vary among institutions. This study compared the minimal invasiveness and oncologic validity of VATS lobectomy and thoracotomy lobectomy for the treatment of large-diameter primary lung cancer.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical features and surgical outcomes of 68 patients who underwent anatomical pulmonary resection for primary lung cancer of >5-cm diameter from July 2006 to March 2013. The patients were divided into a VATS group (Group V, n = 35) and a thoracotomy group (Group T, n = 33).Results: Group V exhibited less intraoperative bleeding (p = 0.012) and had a shorter length of postoperative hospital stay (p = 0.024). The 1- and 5-year overall survival rates were 91.3% and 39.3% in Group V and 84.8% and 56.9% in Group T, respectively (p = 0.48). Multivariate analysis showed that limited lymph node dissection contributed to local recurrence. The extraction bag lavage cytology in Group V revealed that the positivity rate was 35.7%.Conclusions: VATS for primary lung cancer of >5-cm diameter is similar to thoracotomy in terms of surgical outcomes. Large tumors must be carefully maneuvered during VATS to prevent cancer cell spillage.
Purpose: Small pulmonary lesions that include ground-glass attenuation have been increasingly discovered because of progressive imaging diagnostic technologies. Despite the detection of such small lesions, sometimes it is quite difficult to localize them because of their size or considerable depth from the visceral pleura. In the present study, we examined the usefulness of computed tomography-guided lipiodol marking for thoracoscopic resection of impalpable pulmonary nodules.Methods: Fifty-six patients with an undiagnosed peripheral lesion(s) of the lung who had undergone preoperative computed tomography-guided lipiodol marking followed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery were studied.Results: All of the nodules were successfully marked by computed tomography-guided lipiodol marking, and all except for one case were localized by means of intraoperative fluoroscopy as clear spots. With regard to complications, pneumothorax occurred in 21 patients (37.5%), and only one patient required transient drainage. Although hemorrhaging in the lung parenchyma and hemosputum occurred in nine patients (16.1%) and one patient (1.8%), respectively, no patients were in serious condition. No intra- or postoperative mortality or morbidity was observed.Conclusion: Preoperative computed tomography-guided lipiodol marking of small or impalpable pulmonary nodules is a safe and useful procedure for thoracoscopic resection of the lung.
Introduction: Pneumonectomy is the only curative treatment for some benign diseases but the operation is a challenging procedure. Herein, we present our experiences of pneumonectomy for 59 patients.Methods: The medical records of 59 patients who undergone pneumonectomy for benign lung diseases from 2008 to 2013 at the Division of Thoracic Surgery in Beijing Chest Hospital were retrospectively reviewed.Results: There were 23 male and 36 female patients. Three procedures including pneumonectomy, pleuropneumonectomy and completion pneumonectomy were used. The operative time and intraoperative blood loss were statistically different in the patients who undergone different operations. The operative time of the patients with and without tuberculosis had no difference but the intraoperative blood loss was more in the patients with tuberculosis (P = 0.035). The operative type, age and operative blood loss were relevant with the morbidity, the P value were 0.024, 0.042 and 0.027 respectively.Conclusions: Pneumonectomy for patients with benign disease may be more difficult than for patients with lung cancer, mean while pleuropneumonectomy and completion pneumonectomy may be greater challenges. But with careful patient selection and operative technique, it is a satisfactory treatment method for benign lung disease. The morbidity is acceptable and associated with operative type, age and operative blood loss.
Objectives: In 2009, a transcatheter valve intervention program was introduced at our centre. The aim of this single-centre retrospective study was to evaluate gender-specific risk profiles and outcome of patients undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement before and after 2009.Methods: We assessed the preoperative logistic EuroSCORE and age, gender and 30-day-survival of 357 patients diagnosed with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis that underwent primary isolated surgical aortic valve replacement in 2007–2008 (group I, n = 191, 47% female) and 2010–2011 (group II, n = 166, 40% female). Survival follow up data was 100% complete.Results: Women in group II were significantly younger (71.6 ± 9.0 years; p = 0.004) and showed significantly lower risk profiles (logistic EuroSCORE: 9.6 ± 9.9%; p = 0.04) than women in group I (age: 75.6 ± 8.5 years, logistic EuroSCORE: 13.9 ± 15.9). Men’s age and risk profiles remained similar in both groups. Observed survival at 30 days was 98.8% in group II and 95.8% in group I which represented a statistical trend (p = 0.09). Female survival in group I was 92.2% and significantly worse as compared to 99% male survival in group I (p = 0.03). This significant difference in gender ratio of mortality was not detected in group II (female survival 97%, male survival 100%; p = 0.2). Being female was a significant risk factor in group I (odds ratio; 8.4; p = 0.03) but not in group II any longer (odds ratio: 1.0; p = 0.2).Conclusions: The possibility of transcatheter aortic valve replacement for therapy of aortic stenosis has led to a lower risk and improved outcome of surgical aortic valve replacement especially for women.
Purpose: The feasibility of using bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) grafts for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in octogenarians is not clear. This study aimed to compare outcomes between use of BITA and single internal thoracic artery (SITA) grafts in octogenarians undergoing isolated CABG.Methods: Isolated CABG was performed in 1,566 patients at the Sakakibara Heart Institute between September 2004 and December 2012. Of these, 125 consecutive octogenarians were included and divided into two groups, according to the use of BITA grafts (101 subjects) or SITA grafts (24 subjects). Early and late outcomes were compared between groups.Results: The preoperative patient characteristics were similar between the two groups. Early outcomes were similar, including hospital death or deep sternal infection. The estimated 5-year survival rate was similar in the BITA and SITA groups (78% vs 62%, p = 0.269). Freedom from major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events was significantly higher in the BITA group than in the SITA group after 5 years (90% vs 75%, p = 0.032).Conclusions: Our results suggest that use of BITA grafts for CABG is feasible and beneficial in octogenarians, resulting in improved late outcomes without increased operative risk.
Background: To compare the outcomes of totally thoracoscopic technique (TTS) vs. right anterolateral thoracotomy technique (RALT) in female patients undergoing minimal invasive atrial septal defect (ASD) correction.Methods: From March 2011 to January 2013, 125 female patients underwent minimally invasive atrial septal defect closure, of whom 62 patients were in the TTS group and 63 were in the RALT group.Results: Procedures were performed successfully in all patients without in-hospital mortality or major complications. cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time were 48.95 ± 15.63 min in TTS group, 31.4 ± 8.04 min in RALT group (p <0.001); the cross-clamp time were 26.92 ± 11.84 min in TTS group and 18.51 ± 6.11 min in RALT group (p <0.001). The length of incision in RALT group (6.02 ± 1.03 cm) was longer than TTS group (5.31 ± 0.68 cm) and the difference was significant (p <0.001). The overall satisfaction rate for the cosmetic results of TTS was 100% and was 96.83% (61/63 patients) in RALT patients. During follow-up, all patients in TTS group were satisfied expect two patients complained that scar was too long at groin. Reasons for a lower score in RALT group included the long scar in the chest; a RALT incision that was located too medially (coming off the bra line) and asymmetrical breast development.Conclusions: Both TTS and RALT are valid and reliable cosmetic surgical techniques for repairing ASDs in female patients. Both techniques allow excellent cosmetic and functional results in most female patients. The totally thoracoscopic technique may gain shorter incision and cosmetic results compared with RALT.
Purpose: In this study, the relationship between the plasma levels of melatonin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which plays role in several intercellular interactions including inflammatory and immune responses, and early neurocognitive functions associated with ischaemia-reperfusion injury during open heart surgery is examined.Methods: Forty patients who were to undergo elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were divided into two groups, those who underwent their operations at 8 AM (group I; n = 20) and those who underwent their operations at 1 PM (group II; n = 20). Blood samples were collected prior to surgery (S1), when the aortic cross clamp was removed (S2) and 4 (S3) and 24 h after the surgery (S4). Neuropsychiatric assessment was conducted one day before and seven days after surgery.Results: Melatonin levels measured during and after surgery were also significantly higher in Group 1. ICAM-1 levels were significantly lower in Group 1 at S2 and S3. Significant deterioration was observed in postoperative neurocognitive function compared with preoperative functions in Group 2 more than Group 1.Conclusion: We hypothesise that the greater preservation of neurocognitive functions in the morning patients is associated with elevated melatonin levels, which reduce the damage from ischaemia-reperfusion injury.
Purpose: The study evaluates the changes in quality of life (QOL) six months after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) related to the patients’ age.Methods: The total of 243 consecutive patients completed the Nottingham Health Profile Questionnaire part 1 before and six months after CABG. Postoperative questionnaire was completed by 226 patients. Patients were divided into four examined groups (<50, 50–59, 60–69 and ≥70 years), according to their age.Results: Six months after CABG, the quality of life in different sections has been significantly improved in most patients.The analysis of the relation between the age and the changes in QOL of patients six months after CABG showed a significant correlation among the patients’ age and the improvement of QOL in the sections of physical mobility (r = 0.18, p = 0.008), social isolation (r = 0.17, p = 0.01) and energy ( r = 0.21, p = 0.002). The most prominent improvement was found in older patients. The age was not an independent predictor of QOL deterioration after CABG.Conclusions: The most noticeable improvement of QOL six months after CABG was found in older patients. Age is not the independent predictor of deterioration of QOL after CABG.
Background: We report the initial experience of modified four-branched graft technique for proximal aorta and arch repair, feasibly combined with antegrade thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) to extend distal aortic reconstruction in acute type A aortic dissection.Methods: From 2011 to 2013, 12 consecutive patients with acute type A aortic dissection were indicated for arch surgery and underwent surgical replacement of proximal aorta, arch replacement or debranching procedure, and concomitant TEVAR for distal aortic repair.Results: A good surgical field was obtained in all patients. No major complications developed but two hospital deaths were attributed to end-organs damage preoperatively. Good and fast remodeling of thoracic descending aorta was demonstrated in 11 patients in postoperative CT imaging and no aneurysmal dilatation of visceral aorta had been observed in 10 patients during follow-up periods.Conclusion: Modified four-branched graft technique facilitated proximal aorta and arch repair, and provided excellent neurological outcome and favorable short-term results. Single-stage operation combined with antegrade TEVAR is feasible and effective to extend the repair down to the descending aorta, and thus achieved good remodeling of thoracic descending aorta.
Thoracic duct cysts, which may be of congenital or degenerative origin, are very rare lesions. Most patients are asymptomatic, but when symptoms are present they include cough, dyspnea, dysphagia and chest pain. However, in this case report a 35-year-old male patient presented to us with intermittent abdomen pain. Clinical symptoms and radiographic findings helped to identify a giant thoracic duct cyst in this patient. Surgical resection of the cyst resolved the abdominal symptoms. This was the first case reported in the literature of a thoracic duct cyst with the symptoms of abdominal pain.
The hydatid disease is a zoonosis endemic to rural countries, such as those in the Mediterranean region, South America, North Africa, Central Asia and China. Hydatid cysts commonly affect liver and lungs, but less than 100 cases of costal hydatidosis have been reported in the literature. While diagnosis of the disease in commonly affected organs is relatively easy, uncommon locations can prove to be challenging as is the case with costal hydatidosis. Imaging techniques can suggest the diagnosis, but sometimes it remains uncertain until surgery. The treatment is surgical, assisted by long-time Albendazole chemotherapy. We present a rare case of costal hydatidosis, the first one to be reported in Romania according to our review of the literature.
Two cases of successful primary closure of a bronchopleural fistula with favorable infection control using latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps are reported. Case 1 was a 70-year-old man who underwent resection of the right lower pulmonary lobe due to right lung metastasis of sigmoid colon cancer. A bronchopleural fistula was found on day 28 after surgery. Infection was controlled by antibiotic administration and tube drainage. Closure of the bronchopleural stump, thoracoplasty and plombage of latissimus dorsi muscles were performed for single-stage closure without open treatment, based on a negative pleural effusion culture. Case 2 was a 64-year-old man who underwent right lower pulmonary lobe resection due to right lung cancer. A bronchopleural fistula was found on day 14 after surgery. In single-stage closure, thoracoplasty and plombage of latissimus dorsi muscles were performed due to infection control and a negative pleural effusion culture. Both cases had a good postoperative course.
Purpose: The proximal anastomosis of free right internal thoracic artery to ascending aorta is technically difficult when the caliber is not enough.Methods: We incise the proximal stump of the graft longitudinally for 10 mm. One side of start point of longitudinal incision is sewn to the end point of incision by 7-0 polypropylene. The folded sideline (5 mm length) is then closed with a running suture, then formation of pouch like anastomotic end is accomplished.Results: We used this technique in consecutive 34 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery including revascularization to circumflex arteries. Postoperative angiography revealed 97% patency. It does not need another graft material like saphenous vein or radial artery, and possible not only in on pump surgery but also in off pump.Conclusion: This new “Pouch technique” will make it easy to use right internal thoracic artery as a free graft in coronary artery bypass surgery.